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Empires of the sun

Brazil is celebrating 100 years of Japanese immigration. Just don't mention the war

It seemed to me, as I landed in São Paulo, that I might have taken the wrong plane and ended up in Japan instead. Every newspaper or magazine I opened, every television programme I watched, was filled with beaming Japanese faces. The exhibitions at the city's museums were all of Japanese art; thousands of amateur singers were taking to the microphone in karaoke competitions; and a sizeable part of the Japanese navy seemed to be anchored at Santos and Rio, while Crown Prince Naruhito appeared everywhere, bowing and smiling.

This tidal wave of warm feelings towards "our Japanese", as one newspaper has called them, is due to the centenary of Japanese immigration to Brazil. Tolerance and integration are being celebrated, sometimes in surprising ways - at the Rio Carnival this year, samba-dancing geishas twirled their fans - and the influence of the largest Japanese colony outside Japan, numbering a million and a half people, is evident in Brazil's architecture, design, agriculture and cuisine. There are judges, ministers and politicians with Japanese names (though not footballers). It is an immigration success story.

Today, it is hard to believe that at the end of the Second World War there were 31,000 Japanese immigrants in prison, many of them threatened with deportation, or that anti-Japanese feeling was running so high that a congressional amendment was tabled banning all future immigration from Japan. How had things gone so disastrously wrong since 1908, when the first 165 Japanese families made the six-week sea journey to work on Brazil's coffee farms?

While thousands more families followed, looking for a better life, most of the immigrants who arrived in Brazil up to the outbreak of war in 1939 came with the idea of making money and returning to Japan. They were not interested in integration; their children learned the language and way of life of Japan. Brazilians, in turn, called the Japanese women "monkeys" because they carried their babies on their backs, and the men "goats" because of their facial hair.

During the war, when Brazil joined the Allies and sent troops to fight in Italy, the country's large German and Japanese colonies were seen as a potential fifth column. German- and Japanese-language newspapers, radio programmes and school lessons were banned, and when Brazilian ships were torpedoed, thousands of immigrants suspected of spying were moved inland. Some were dumped in the Amazon. In reality, deprived of information by the ban on radios and newspapers, most immigrants had no idea what was happening in the outside world. When rumours circulated that Japan had lost the war, the majority refused to believe it - in the 2,600 years of its existence Japan had never experienced military defeat.

A secret society led by Junji Kikawa, an ex-colonel of the Japanese Imperial Army, was formed to defend the idea of Japan's victory. Shindo Renmei ("the League of the Subjects' Path") soon had 100,000 paying members in 64 towns and cities throughout the state of São Paulo, where most of the immigrants had settled. The league printed faked pamphlets with orders from the emperor to fight on, and even doctored a photograph that showed MacArthur accepting Hirohito's surrender aboard the US aircraft carrier Missouri to make it appear that the American general was the one surrendering.

Most Shindo Renmei members were moved by fanatical loyalty to Japan, but some were motivated by the desire to make money out of their gullible compatriots. Unscrupulous tricksters convinced thousands to sell their homes and buy tickets on ships said to be coming to take the immigrants to settle Japan's new eastern empire. They exchanged their Brazilian currency for now-worthless yen and headed for Santos to wait for the Japanese ships that would never arrive.

The more sinister elements of the organisation set out to eliminate the makegumi, or defeatists - those immigrants, many of whom were successful businessmen, who had learned Portuguese and who insisted that Japan had lost the war. They became the targets of a ruthless campaign of assassination: the months of murder and violence that ensued are not a time the present-day colony likes to remember, but they have been well documented.

Those marked for assassination would find a note pinned to their door with the sinister warning "Wash your neck in preparation", though most of the killings were carried out not with swords, but with firearms. The killers, mostly poor young immigrants, acted in groups of five, the Imperial Japanese flag wrapped round their bodies under their shirts. They were amateurs, and bungled many of the attempts, but even so, by the end of 1946, 23 men had been assassinated and 147 injured. Meanwhile, in the towns of Osvaldo Cruz and Tupã, lynch mobs hunted down hapless immigrants, whether Shindo Renmei supporters or not, dragging them through the streets and beating them almost to death.

The crimes sparked a heated debate in congress on Japanese immigration and whether it should be halted. One legislator compared the Japanese to sulphur: insoluble, unassimilable. The Shindo Renmei was accused of aiming to "Nippon-ise" Brazil and of wanting to create a new Japanese empire stretching from the Atlantic via Bolivia and Chile to the Pacific. Others argued that to ban the Japanese from Brazil would be to replicate the racism of the Nazis, which the country had gone to war to defeat. The amendment banning immigration was defeated by one vote.

They had won in congress, but Japanese Brazilians were in disarray. To put an end to the murderous activities of the Shindo Renmei, the police made mass arrests of tens of thousands of immigrants. The leaders were transported to the island prison of Anchieta, a 12-hour boat journey from Santos. At first, they fought with the prison guards and turned to the east every morning to sing the Japanese national anthem, but soon they were planting kitchen gardens, tending chickens and fishing. In 1958 they were freed, and the cult of Shindo Renmei faded into oblivion.

This article first appeared in the 20 October 2008 issue of the New Statesman, My year with Obama

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We need to talk about the online radicalisation of young, white women

Alt-right women are less visible than their tiki torch-carrying male counterparts - but they still exist. 

In November 2016, the writer and TED speaker Siyanda Mohutsiwa tweeted a ground-breaking observation. “When we talk about online radicalisation we always talk about Muslims. But the radicalisation of white men online is at astronomical levels,” she wrote, inspiring a series of mainstream articles on the topic (“We need to talk about the online radicalisation of young, white men,” wrote Abi Wilkinson in The Guardian). It is now commonly accepted that online radicalisation is not limited to the work of Isis, which uses social media to spread propaganda and recruit new members. Young, white men frequently form alt-right and neo-Nazi beliefs online.

But this narrative, too, is missing something. When it comes to online radicalisation into extreme right-wing, white supremacist, or racist views, women are far from immune.

“It’s a really slow process to be brainwashed really,” says Alexandra*, a 22-year-old former-racist who adopted extreme views during the United States presidential election of 2016. In particular, she believed white people to be more intelligent than people of colour. “It definitely felt like being indoctrinated into a cult.”

Alexandra was “indoctrinated” on 4Chan, the imageboard site where openly racist views flourish, especially on boards such as /pol/. It is a common misconception that 4Chan is only used by loser, basement-dwelling men. In actuality, 4Chan’s official figures acknowledge 30 percent of its users are female. More women may frequent 4Chan and /pol/ than it first appears, as many do not announce their gender on the site because of its “Tits or GTFO” culture. Even when women do reveal themselves, they are often believed to be men who are lying for attention.

“There are actually a lot of females on 4chan, they just don't really say. Most of the time it just isn't relevant,” says Alexandra. Her experiences on the site are similar to male users who are radicalised by /pol/’s far-right rhetoric. “They sowed the seeds of doubt with memes,” she laughs apprehensively. “Dumb memes and stuff and jokes…

“[Then] I was shown really bullshit studies that stated that some races were inferior to others like… I know now that that’s bogus science, it was bad statistics, but I never bothered to actually look into the truth myself, I just believed what was told to me.”

To be clear, online alt-right radicalisation still skews majority male (and men make up most of the extreme far-right, though women have always played a role in white supremacist movements). The alt-right frequently recruits from misogynistic forums where they prey on sexually-frustrated males and feed them increasingly extreme beliefs. But Alexandra’s story reveals that more women are part of radical right-wing online spaces than might first be apparent.

“You’d think that it would never happen to you, that you would never hold such horrible views," says Alexandra. "But it just happened really slowly and I didn't even notice it until too late."

***

We are less inclined to talk about radical alt-right and neo-Nazi women because they are less inclined to carry out radical acts. Photographs that emerged from the white nationalist rally in Charlottesville this weekend revealed that it was mostly polo shirt-wearing young, white men picking up tiki torches, shouting racial slurs, and fighting with counter-protestors. The white supremacist and alt-right terror attacks of the last year have also been committed by men, not women. But just because women aren’t as visible doesn’t mean they are not culpable.  

“Even when people are alt-right or sympathisers with Isis, it’s a tiny percentage of people who are willing or eager to die for those reasons and those people typically have significant personal problems and mental health issues, or suicidal motives,” explains Adam Lankford, author of The Myth of Martyrdom: What Really Drives Suicide Bombers, Rampage Shooters, and Other Self-Destructive Killers.

“Both men and women can play a huge role in terms of shaping the radicalised rhetoric that then influences those rare people who commit a crime.”

Prominent alt-right women often publicly admit that their role is more behind-the-scenes. Ayla Stewart runs the blog Wife With a Purpose, where she writes about “white culture” and traditional values. She was scheduled to speak at the Charlottesville “Unite the Right” rally before dropping out due to safety concerns. In a blog post entitled “#Charlottesville May Have Redefined Women’s Roles in the Alt Right”, she writes:

“I’ve decided that the growth of the movement has necessitated that I pick and choose my involvement as a woman more carefully and that I’m more mindful to chose [sic] women’s roles only.”

These roles include public speaking (only when her husband is present), gaining medical skills, and “listening to our men” in order to provide moral support. Stewart declined to be interviewed for this piece.

It is clear, therefore, that alt-right women do not have to carry out violence to be radical or radicalised. In some cases, they are complicit in the violence that does occur. Lankford gives the example of the Camp Chapman attack, committed by a male Jordanian suicide bomber against a CIA base in Afghanistan.

“What the research suggests in that case was the guy who ultimately committed the suicide bombing may have been less radical than his wife,” he explains. “His wife was actually pushing him to be more radical and shaming him for his lack of courage.” 

***

Just because women are less likely to be violent doesn’t mean they are incapable of it.

Angela King is a former neo-Nazi who went to prison for her part in the armed robbery and assault of a Jewish shop owner. She now runs Life After Hate, a non-profit that aims to help former right-wing extremists. While part of a skinhead gang, it was her job to recruit other women to the cause.

“I was well known for the violence I was willing to inflict on others… often times the men would come up to me and say we don’t want to physically hurt a woman so can you take care of this,” King explains. “When I brought other women in I looked for the same qualities in them that I thought I had in myself.”

King's 1999 mugshot

 

These traits, King explains, were anger and a previous history of violence. She was 15 when she became involved with neo-Nazis, and explains that struggles with her sexuality and bullying had made her into a violent teenager.

“I was bullied verbally for years. I didn't fit in, I was socially awkward,” she says. One incident in particular stands out. Aged 12, King was physically bullied for the first time.

“I was humiliated in a way that even today I still am humiliated by this experience,” she says. One day, King made the mistake of sitting at a desk that “belonged” to a bully. “She started a fight with me in front of the entire class… I’ve always struggled with weight so I was a little bit pudgy, I had my little training bra on, and during the fight she ripped my shirt open in front of the entire class.

“At that age, having absolutely no self-confidence, I made the decision that if I became the bully, and took her place, I could never be humiliated like that again.”

Angela King, aged 18

King’s story is important because when it comes to online radicalisation, the cliché is that bullied, “loser” men are drawn to these alt-right and neo-Nazi communities. The most prominent women in the far-right (such as Stewart, and Lauren Southern, a YouTuber) are traditionally attractive and successful, with long blonde hair and flashing smiles. In actuality, women that are drawn to the movement online might be struggling, like King, to be socially accepted. This in no way justifies or excuses extreme behaviour, but can go some way to explaining how and why certain young women are radicalised. 

“At the age of 15 I had been bullied, raped. I had started down a negative path you know, experimenting with drugs, drinking, theft. And I was dealing with what I would call an acute identity crisis and essentially I was a very, very angry young woman who was socially awkward who did not feel like I had a place in the world, that I fit in anywhere. And I had no self-confidence or self-esteem. I hated everything about myself.”

King explains that Life After Hate’s research reveals that there are often non-ideological based precursors that lead people to far right groups. “Individuals don’t go to hate groups because they already hate everyone, they go seeking something. They go to fill some type of void in their lives that they’re not getting.”

None of this, of course, excuses the actions and beliefs of far-right extremists, but it does go some way to explaining how “normal” young people can be radicalised online. I ask Alexandra, the former 4Chan racist, if anything else was going on in her life when she was drawn towards extreme beliefs.

“Yes, I was lonely,” she admits.                                                       

***

That lonely men and women can both be radicalised in the insidious corners of the internet shouldn’t be surprising. For years, Isis has recruited vulnerable young women online, with children as young as 15 becoming "jihadi brides". We have now acknowledged that the cliché of virginal, spotty men being driven to far-right hate excludes the college-educated, clean-cut white men who made up much of the Unite the Right rally last weekend. We now must realise that right-wing women, too, are radicalised online, and they, too, are culpable for radical acts.  

It is often assumed that extremist women are radicalised by their husbands or fathers, which is aided by statements by far-right women themselves. The YouTuber, Southern, for example, once said:  

“Anytime they [the left] talk about the alt-right, they make it sound like it’s just about a bunch of guys in basements. They don’t mention that these guys have wives – supportive wives, who go to these meet-ups and these conferences – who are there – so I think it’s great for right-wing women to show themselves. We are here. You’re wrong.”

Although there is truth in this statement, women don’t have to have far-right husbands, brothers, or fathers in order to be drawn to white supremacist or alt-right movements. Although it doesn’t seem the alt-right are actively preying on young white women the same way they prey on young white men, many women are involved in online spaces that we wrongly assume are male-only. There are other spaces, such as Reddit's r/Hawtschwitz, where neo-Nazi women upload nude and naked selfies, carving a specific space for themselves in the online far-right. 

When we speak of women radicalised by husbands and fathers, we misallocate blame. Alexandra deeply regrets her choices, but she accepts they were her own. “I’m not going to deny that what I did was bad because I have to take responsibility for my actions,” she says.

Alexandra, who was “historically left-wing”, was first drawn to 4Chan when she became frustrated with the “self-righteousness” of the website Tumblr, favoured by liberal teens. Although she frequented the site's board for talking about anime, /a/, not /pol/, she found neo-Nazi and white supremacist beliefs were spread there too. 

“I was just like really fed up with the far left,” she says, “There was a lot of stuff I didn't like, like blaming males for everything.” From this, Alexandra became anti-feminist and this is how she was incrementally exposed to anti-Semitic and racist beliefs. This parallels the story of many radicalised males on 4Chan, who turn to the site from hatred of feminists or indeed, all women. 

 “What I was doing was racist, like I – deep down I didn't really fully believe it in my heart, but the seeds of doubt were sowed again and it was a way to fit in. Like, if you don't regurgitate their opinions exactly they’ll just bully you and run you off.”

King’s life changed in prison, where Jamaican inmates befriended her and she was forced to reassess her worldview. Alexandra now considers herself “basically” free from prejudices, but says trying to rid herself of extreme beliefs is like “detoxing from drugs”. She began questioning 4Chan when she first realised that they genuinely wanted Donald Trump to become president. “I thought that supporting Trump was just a dumb meme on the internet,” she says.

Nowadays, King dedicates her life to helping young people escape from far-right extremism. "Those of us who were involved a few decades ago we did not have this type of technology, cell phones were not the slim white phones we have today, they were giant boxes," she says. "With the younger individuals who contact us who grew up with this technology, we're definitely seeing people who initially stumbled across the violent far-right online and the same holds for men and women.

"Instead of having to be out in public in a giant rally or Klan meeting, individuals find hate online."

* Name has been changed

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.

This article first appeared in the 20 October 2008 issue of the New Statesman, My year with Obama