The unravelling of a cure-all qualification

Can diplomas, originally pitched at plugging the middle-range skills gap, really ensure high-quality

Few people are neutral about the government's new 16-19 "skills-based" diplomas, which schools begin teaching in September, replacing a raft of existing vocational courses. Teachers, academics and employers either love or hate diplomas.

"We are wildly enthusiastic about the diploma," said Nigel Akers, vice-principal of Djanogly City Academy in Nottingham which has been trialling the new qualification and begins formal teaching in September. "It is a different style of learning, more rooted in real-life experiences."

The Diploma: A Disaster Waiting to Happen was the title of a report published by Professor Alan Smithers and Pamela Robinson of Buckingham University in June. He says it is "extremely doubtful that the same qualification can be fit for a wide range of purposes, such as university entrance and recruitment to craft and technician levels in employment".

Diplomas, designed in partnership with employers, were originally intended to plug the country's biggest skills gap - those middle-range skills, which should have been met through apprenticeships and vocational training, but which employers have been reluctant to provide. They aim to develop broad workplace skills rather than preparation for a specific job.

But Gordon Brown wants the diploma to both engage those who are not in education, employment or training (Neets) as he raises the school-leaving age to 18 and produce world-class scientists and other top-notch graduates who can keep India and China at bay for at least another generation. Advanced diplomas will be worth more university entrance points than three A levels. Extended diplomas will be worth 4.5 A levels. Can the diploma really be all things to all people, asks Smithers.

Five of the 14 vocational diplomas - IT, engineering, creative and media, health and social care, and construction and the built environment - will be taught from this year.

The diploma wrapper includes various components: centrally examined functional skills in English, maths and IT (roughly GCSE equivalent), a project that will be assessed locally, 10 days' (unassessed) work experience, and the rather vague "personal learning and thinking skills", acquired through the other components.

"The IT diploma is preparation for the world of work, not specifically for a degree in IT," said Akers, who is also coordinator of the IT Diploma Partnership. He says seven of the 14 diplomas could be the vehicle for general business skills.

So how is it different to what went before? Hands-on practical experience is crucial. But being "relevant" also means a different kind of teaching, with reference to real-life examples.

"We entered students with A* maths GCSE in the functional skills exam. It is supposedly the same level, but they all failed. They can do the maths but explaining how that is used in a business environment is what threw them. It is challenging, especially when young people do not have these life experiences," Akers said.

It could also be that 10 weeks' work experience, all that is required over two years, is not enough to develop those skills.

"Most schools have neither the range of equipment nor expertise to teach practical skills to industrial standards, so the danger is that the diploma will become less about honing up practical skills than writing or talking about them," said Smithers.

Meanwhile, the different components make diplomas complex, and their range burdensome for schools. By the government's own admission they can only be delivered by a consortium of schools. Language colleges can offer language diplomas, science colleges might offer science, engineering and IT diplomas, but to have a real choice, students will need to travel between sites, which could involve long distances in non-urban areas.

In Nottingham a consortium of ten secondaries signed up to diplomas from this year, another five schools join from September 2009. The most popular diplomas are IT, engineering, and creative and media. It is no coincidence that these are the most accepted by universities, although some universities have queried the standard of mathematics in engineering. Even Smithers believes the engineering diploma could gain currency, although he points out there are whole swathes of the country, such as the south coast, with no engineering industry to gain work experience in.

By contrast the NHS, the largest employer in Europe, is everywhere and "highly supportive" of the health and social care diploma, no doubt because it used to provide on-the-job training to the kind of people who might now do the diploma.

But it is less clear who would be attracted to the construction and built environment diploma, say, which is not about bricklaying, but more about town planning and development.

"The diploma should not be looked at as something for disaffected youngsters, they may not stand a chance to complete the whole thing," said Mr Akers.

Every component of the diploma needs to be in place before the qualification is awarded. Only the highly motivated, and those best supported by their schools will last the course. Hardly something for the Neets, then.

However, it was when the extended diplomas in science, languages and humanities were announced last year that the diploma began to unravel as a cure-all qualification. Its selling point over A levels is "applied learning", carried over from the vocational diplomas.

"Many top scientists have come up through doing A levels but the diploma will add other skills, with a focus on applied learning," says Professor Hugh Lawlor, chair of the Science Diploma Development Partnership (DDP), which includes academics, industry and educationalists. The problem will be finding the time in the timetable for both academic rigour and highly practical learning.

The rationale for a science diploma is that industry needs laboratory technicians as well as nanoscientists and astrophysicists. But even Lawlor believes A levels might be a better route for some.

The languages diploma will encompass both European and "community" languages, and will include "intercultural" learning.

A humanities diploma is the most difficult to design, encompassing a broad range of subject disciplines. Still embryonic, the "big idea" seems to be a "synoptic element" across several disciplines. But even Sir Keith Ajegbo, chair of the Humanities DDP, agrees that to be distinct from A levels "we need to be clear what we are selling to employers".

Therein lies the rub. The Confederation of British Industry, many of whose members had helped devise vocational diplomas, came out against academic diplomas, preferring tried and tested A levels for university entry. That has frightened off many students.

Akers still insists diplomas are "what Britain PLC wants". But not everyone is convinced that what is good for business is good for Britain.

Yojana Sharma is an international education correspondent

This article first appeared in the 28 July 2008 issue of the New Statesman, Money rules: Why cash now counts more than class

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The secret anti-capitalist history of McDonald’s

As a new film focuses on the real founder of McDonald’s, his grandson reveals the unlikely story behind his family’s long-lost restaurant.

One afternoon in about the year 1988, an 11-year-old boy was eating at McDonald’s with his family in the city of Manchester, New Hampshire. During the meal, he noticed a plaque on the wall bearing a man’s face and declaring him the founder of McDonald’s. These plaques were prevalent in McDonald’s restaurants across the US at the time. The face – gleaming with pride – belonged to Ray Kroc, a businessman and former travelling salesman long hailed as the creator of the fast food franchise.

Flickr/Phillip Pessar

But this wasn’t the man the young boy munching on fries expected to see. That man was in the restaurant alongside him. “I looked at my grandfather and said, ‘But I thought you were the founder?’” he recalls. “And that’s when, in the late Eighties, early Nineties, my grandfather went back on the [McDonald’s] Corporation to set the history straight.”

Jason McDonald French, now a 40-year-old registered nurse with four children, is the grandson of Dick McDonald – the real founder of McDonald’s. When he turned to his grandfather as a confused child all those years ago, he spurred him on to correct decades of misinformation about the mysterious McDonald’s history. A story now being brought to mainstream attention by a new film, The Founder.


Jason McDonald French

“They [McDonald’s Corporation] seemed to forget where the name actually did come from,” says McDonald French, speaking on the phone from his home just outside Springfield, Massachusetts.

His grandfather Dick was one half of the McDonald brothers, an entrepreneurial duo of restaurateurs who started out with a standard drive-in hotdog stand in California, 1937.

Dick's father, an Irish immigrant, worked in a shoe factory in New Hampshire. He and his brother made their success from scratch. They founded a unique burger restaurant in San Bernardino, around 50 miles east of where they had been flogging hotdogs. It would become the first McDonald’s restaurant.

Most takeout restaurants back then were drive-ins, where you would park, order food from your car, and wait for a “carhop” server to bring you your meal on a plate, with cutlery. The McDonald brothers noticed that this was a slow, disorganised process with pointless costly overheads.

So they invented fast food.

***

In 1948, they built what came to be known as the “speedy system” for a fast food kitchen from scratch. Dick was the inventor out of the two brothers - as well as the bespoke kitchen design, he came up with both the iconic giant yellow “M” and its nickname, the “Golden Arches”.

“My grandfather was an innovator, a man ahead of his time,” McDonald French tells me. “For someone who was [only] high school-educated to come up with the ideas and have the foresight to see where the food service business was going, is pretty remarkable.”


The McDonald brothers with a milkshake machine.

McDonald French is still amazed at his grandfather’s contraptions. “He was inventing machines to do this automated system, just off-the-cuff,” he recalls. “They were using heat lamps to keep food warm beforehand, before anyone had ever thought of such a thing. They customised their grills to whip the grease away to cook the burgers more efficiently. It was six-feet-long, which was just unheard of.”

Dick even custom-made ketchup and mustard dispensers – like metal fireplace bellows – to speed up the process of garnishing each burger. The brothers’ system, which also cut out waiting staff and the cost of buying and washing crockery and cutlery, brought customers hamburgers from grill to counter in 30 seconds.


The McDonald brothers as depicted in The Founder. Photo: The Founder

McDonald French recounts a story of the McDonald brothers working late into the night, drafting and redrafting a blueprint for the perfect speedy kitchen in chalk on their tennis court for hours. By 3am, when they finally had it all mapped out, they went to bed – deciding to put it all to paper the next day. The dry, desert climate of San Bernardino meant it hadn’t rained in months.

 “And, of course, it rained that night in San Bernardino – washed it all away. And they had to redo it all over again,” chuckles McDonald French.

In another hiccup when starting out, a swarm of flies attracted by the light descended on an evening event they put on to drum up interest in their restaurant, driving customers away.


An original McDonald's restaurant, as depicted in The Founder. Photo: The Founder

***

These turned out to be the least of their setbacks. As depicted in painful detail in John Lee Hancock’s film, Ray Kroc – then a milkshake machine salesman – took interest in their restaurant after they purchased six of his “multi-mixers”. It was then that the three men drew up a fateful contract. This signed Kroc as the franchising agent for McDonald’s, who was tasked with rolling out other McDonald’s restaurants (the McDonalds already had a handful of restaurants in their franchise). 

Kroc soon became frustrated at having little influence. He was bound by the McDonalds’ inflexibility and stubborn standards (they wouldn’t allow him to cut costs by purchasing powdered milkshake, for example). The film also suggests he was fed up with the lack of money he was making from the deal. In the end, he wriggled his way around the contract by setting up the property company “McDonald’s Corporation” and buying up the land on which the franchises were built.


Ray Kroc, as depicted in The Founder. Photo: The Founder

Kroc ended up buying McDonald’s in 1961, for $2.7m. He gave the brothers $1m each and agreeing to an annual royalty of half a per cent, which the McDonald family says they never received.

“My father told us about the handshake deal [for a stake in the company] and how Kroc had gone back on his word. That was very upsetting to my grandfather, and he never publicly spoke about it,” McDonald French says. “It’s probably billions of dollars. But if my grandfather was never upset about it enough to go after the Corporation, why would we?”

They lost the rights to their own name, and had to rebrand their original restaurant “The Big M”. It was soon put out of business by a McDonald’s that sprang up close by.


An original McDonald restaurant in Arizona. Photo: Flickr/George

Soon after that meal when the 11-year-old Jason saw Kroc smiling down from the plaque for the first time, he learned the true story of what had happened to his grandfather. “It’s upsetting to hear that your family member was kind of duped,” he says. “But my grandfather always had a great respect for the McDonald’s Corporation as a whole. He never badmouthed the Corporation publicly, because he just wasn’t that type of man.”

Today, McDonalds' corporate website acknowledges the McDonalds brothers as the founders of the original restaurant, and credits Kroc with expanding the franchise. The McDonald’s Corporation was not involved with the making of The Founder, which outlines this story. I have contacted it for a response to this story, but it does not wish to comment.

***

Dick McDonald’s principles jar with the modern connotations of McDonald’s – now a garish symbol of global capitalism. The film shows Dick’s attention to the quality of the food, and commitment to ethics. In one scene, he refuses a lucrative deal to advertise Coca Cola in stores. “It’s a concept that goes beyond our core beliefs,” he rants. “It’s distasteful . . . crass commercialism.”

Kroc, enraged, curses going into business with “a beatnik”.


Photo: The Founder

Dick’s grandson agrees that McDonald’s has strayed from his family’s values. He talks of his grandfather’s generosity and desire to share his wealth – the McDonald brothers gave their restaurant to its employees, and when Dick returned to New Hampshire after the sale, he used some of the money to buy new Cadillacs with air conditioning for his old friends back home.

“[McDonald’s] is definitely a symbol of capitalism, and it definitely sometimes has a negative connotation in society,” McDonald French says. “If it was still under what my grandfather had started, I imagine it would be more like In'N'Out Burger [a fast food chain in the US known for its ethical standards] is now, where they pay their employees very well, where they stick to the simple menu and the quality.”

He adds: “I don’t think it would’ve ever blossomed into this, doing salads and everything else. It would’ve stayed simple, had quality products that were great all the time.

“I believe that he [my grandfather] wasn’t too unhappy that he wasn’t involved with it anymore.”


The McDonald’s Museum, Ray Kroc’s first franchised restaurant in the chain. Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Despite his history, Dick still took his children and grandchildren to eat at McDonald’s together – “all the time” – as does Jason McDonald French with his own children now. He’s a cheeseburger enthusiast, while his seven-year-old youngest child loves the chicken nuggets. But there was always a supersize elephant in the room.

“My grandfather never really spoke of Ray Kroc,” he says. “That was always kind of a touchy subject. It wasn’t until years later that my father told us about how Kroc was not a very nice man. And it was the only one time I ever remember my grandfather talking about Kroc, when he said: ‘Boy, that guy really got me.’”

The Founder is in UK cinemas from today.

Anoosh Chakelian is senior writer at the New Statesman.