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Space salad and twin studies: what did astronauts learn on their latest space station mission?

One astronaut broke the record for most days spent in space, while another left his twin at home on Earth to measure the effects of space on the human body. 

Expedition 44 to the International Space Station has been successfully completed after three astronauts landed in Kazakhstan on 11 September. During the mission, a cosmonaut clocked up more days in space than any other human being, the most audacious twin study in the history of science was launched, and astronauts ate lettuce grown in space for the first time.

The crew have taught us plenty about how to survive beyond our own planet – knowledge that is crucial if we want to venture out on long journeys exploring the solar system.

The body in space

Understanding the effects of space travel on the human body is crucial. We know that astronauts suffer from a loss of bone density, weakened muscles, reduced heart function, exposure to radiation, nutrition deficiencies and immune system problems as well as sleep and psychological problems.

The returning astronauts: Andreas Mogensen, Aidyn Aimbetov and Gennady Padalka. Photo: NASA

These risks are especially relevant to Padalka, the astronaut who has now broken the record for amount of time spent away from Earth – he has spent 878 days in space over five missions. He has said he would like to return to try for 1,000 days, which would mean spending another 122 days in space.

While we don’t know exactly what the cumulative effect would be, Padalka could be at risk of developing a range of health problems, including back problems, osteoporosis, cancer and damage to the nervous system.

Identifying the most common health problems will be crucial. Scurvy once killed millions of sailors, but we now understand how to prevent it. However, conditions in space are very different, as microgravity and radiation affect the biochemistry of the human body differently to the atmosphere on Earth.. It is important to weigh up all these factors when working out how to keep astronauts healthy during long stays in space.

It's not easy to assess such health effects, as there are so few people who have actually gone to space. Twin studies, where one twin is kept on earth as a control, are one excelelnt way to do this. Conveniently for NASA, Kelly has a twin brother, Mark Kelly, who is a retired astronaut. They are participating in a twin study examining the effects of space on Scott, and comparing with them to Mark's vitals while he remains on Earth. Blood samples from this study have now been sent back to Earth with the returning on the spacecraft.

Mark and Scott Kelly at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. Texas Photo: NASA.

The study focuses on how space affects the heart, muscles and brain; how astronauts' cognitive skills change in space; how dietary differences in space affect the microbiology of the gut; and how human molecular biology is affected by microgravity, radiation and confinement.

In particular, the study focuses on atherosclerosis, a clogging of arteries with fatty deposits which results in the death of hundreds of thousands of people every year. The results won't just tell us how to survive in space - they could teach us valuable lessons about human physiology, which would represent vital advances in medial sciences.

The mind in space

NASA’s One-Year Crew is also studyinh the psychological effects of living in a confined environment for an extended period of time. Studies have revealed a number of psychiatric problems during space travel, mostly transient anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic responses such as toothache, prostatitis, and cardiac arrhythmia.

Astronauts have also reported missing the Earth. Following his flight in 2010, Korniyenko said:

“The thing you miss there most of all is the Earth itself. I missed smells. I missed trees, I even dreamt of them. I even hallucinated. I thought I smelled a real fire and something being barbecued on it! I ended up putting pictures of trees on the walls to cheer up. You do miss the Earth there.”  

However, the effect of looking down on Earth and appreciating its beauty elicits strong positive reaction in astronauts and cosmonauts. Does this speak to some particular deep psychological connection between Earth and human beings? Would humans born on Mars develop the same connection with the red planet?

Exploring the inner solar system

These physical and mental challenges must be met if we are to explore beyond Earth and develop a persistent presence throughout the inner solar system. Even the most optimistic plans to go to Mars require journeys that are several years long.

They may also require us to perfect the art of growing food in space, as was done for the first time on ISS Expedition 44, whose members were the first humans to eat food entirely grown in space. The next step is to improve the yield and nutritional value of these crops. On Earth, the VEGGIE system was tested with Swiss chard, radishes, Chinese cabbage and peas, so these could be the next crops to be grown on ISS. There are also ideas to test our ability to grow food on the Moon in small canisters including basil and turnips.

There is a lot of science going on at the International Space Station, in areas ranging from manufacturing and materials to planetary science and human physiology. Much of this research cannot be done elsewhere. The space station provides a unique laboratory. In doing this we are learning to survive away from our home planet. But we are also exploring what it means to be human. Astronauts feel an affinity for Earth. Are we therefore defined by our planet of origin? Are we truly Earthlings?

This doesn’t come cheap – the USA, Russia, Japan, and Europe have, over a period of 30 years, spent around €100 billion on the International Space Station. The European contribution stands at €8 billion over this period, which corresponds to about one Euro per European every year.

This is similar to the annual administrative budget for the whole of the EU. That may seem like a lot, but we can, and should, push the boundaries of our species whilst caring for our fellow humans back on Earth. Space flight is often simply a convenient target for austerity when faced with such challenges.

Chris Arridge is a Research Fellow/Lecturer at Lancaster University.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

The Conversation

Photo: Getty
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The internet dictionary: what is astroturfing?

Yes, like the fake grass.

Thanks to the internet, there are a lot of new words. You’re most likely up to speed with your LOLs and OMGs, which became Oxford English Dictionary-worthy in 2011 (LOL OMG if you’re not). But words emerge constantly, and it can be hard to keep track of them. This is what this column is for. Every week, I’ll define a word that is crucial to understanding the internet, starting with “astroturfing” – like the fake grass.

To astroturf is to mask the author of a message to make it appear to have come from the grass roots. Messages created by brands, politicians and even the military are disguised as comments made by the public. The practice existed before the web – the term is thought to have been coined in 1985 by a US senator who received a “mountain” of letters from insurance companies posing as the public – but the internet has propelled it to new, disturbing heights.

“GIRLS U NEED TO READ THIS,” reads a tweet by a handsome teenage boy named Ashton, who tweets the same words day after day, followed by crying and heart emojis. Ashton lives to promote the book of a 19-year-old self-published author from Sheffield – or, at least, he would, if he lived at all. Ashton is fake, a profile designed to make the book seem popular. Many teenage girls have been duped by this. One told me: “I felt very cheated out of my money and my time.”

It has been estimated that a third of all consumer reviews online are fake. But it doesn’t end with bad books. In China, the “50 Cent Army” are astroturfers who are allegedly paid a small fee for each positive post they write about the Chinese Communist Party. And in 2011, it emerged that the US military was developing an “online persona management service” to spread pro-American messages, allowing one person to manage multiple online identities.

We would be foolish to assume that our own democracy is immune. Much was written about how the Tories used targeted social media adverts at the last election, and it is easy to see how astroturfing could transform our political landscape for ever. 

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.

This article first appeared in the 10 August 2017 issue of the New Statesman, France’s new Napoleon