Nations can no longer afford to go it alone on cyber-security

Cyber-crime knows know borders, so nor should our defences.

Senior representatives from more than 90 governments met in Seoul recently to discuss cyber-space, including cyber-security and cyber-crime. It was the third in a series of international conferences that has followed a push from the UK government to bring a more international perspective to discussions about how to keep cyber-space open while addressing threats.

Cyber-crime does not operate in a world confined by national borders so an international response is our only option. We need to cooperate to protect devices and information infrastructures from malicious entities seeking to steal secrets, deny access to critical services and exploit our identities to commit crimes.

Vulnerable businesses
There is much work to be done. Weaknesses in infrastructures, policy and operations leave us vulnerable and threats to businesses and individuals are frequent and damaging. For example, a sophisticated malicious software recently infected a PC at a small British bakery, then managed to bypass all of the business’s online banking security software and steal £20,000. There is no end to the news of malware, viruses and spam that affect online accounts and home computers.

Recent research indicates that four in five of the UK’s largest quoted companies are unprepared for cyber attacks. The widely reported threats to systems within finance and banking are an uneasy reminder of our vulnerability – and a key priority of the Bank of England and other financial regulators. Even those companies that you might expect to see outsmarting cyber-criminals are not immune. Just a few weeks ago software company Adobe admitted that its system had been hacked and that data from nearly 3 million customers had been stolen. Now there are reports of ransomware attacks across companies in East London’s hi-tech cluster of businesses.

Currently, too many decisions relating to cyber-security rely on inadequate evidence, inconsistent data, deficient reporting and varying rules across networks and systems. This inconsistency on data is apparent in UK government. Two years ago the UK Cabinet Office published a study by Detica, which estimated that cyber-crime costs the UK economy £27bn per year. It gave a breakdown by business sector and type of crime. This type of data is critical for governments, businesses and technology companies to plan appropriate security responses. However, a 2012 study undertaken by Professor Ross Anderson and colleagues for the Ministry of Defence calculated that a more realistic estimate would be closer to £12bn, distributed in significantly different ways to the Detica claims. This would suggest a different pattern of appropriate responses.

Defence beyond borders
A report to which I contributed, Now for the Long Term calls for the creation of an information exchange - CyberEx - to start tackling these issues. It could be funded by governments and businesses with an interest in collecting and analysing data on cyber-attacks to inform their own decisions about cyber-security. Each could share their own information and coordinate with others on responses to international threats. CyberEx could identify weaknesses in the global system, flag up suspicious Internet traffic and malicious software and help countries and businesses develop technical standards for their cyber-security efforts.

It could seek to minimise common vulnerabilities that enable the theft of sensitive information and the distribution of spam through systems, and work closely with international and domestic agencies to prevent common system attacks. The platform could also provide a useful mechanism for stakeholders to work together on responses to collective concerns, such as privacy protection. By providing an accessible, open platform for information exchange, CyberEx could help governments, businesses and individuals to better understand common threat patterns, identify preventative measures and minimise future attacks.

But you are only as strong as your weakest link, so CyberEx would also need to help developing countries improve their cyber infrastructure. For example, Professor Anderson’s MoD study concluded that significant numbers of “stranded traveller” scams and Advance Fee Frauds originate in West Africa, particularly Nigeria.

We are at the start of conversations with interested parties on the potential for CyberEx, so the details of how and where the exchange would be hosted are still to be worked out. The report’s recommendation is a starting point but it is an important one. It could move us closer to using an exchange platform to counter common but high-risk cyber threats. It is a conversation that must continue if we are to meet the challenges posed by increased societal dependence on information infrastructures.

Ian Brown receives funding from the UK Research Councils (currently EPSRC), the European Commission, and BT. He is on the advisory councils of the Open Rights Group, Privacy International and the Foundation for Information Policy Research.

This article was originally published at The Conversation. Read the original article.

The Conversation

We can't fight cyber-crime by ourselves. (Photo: Getty)
Curtis Holland
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Living the Meme: What happened to the "Bacon is good for me" boy?

Eight years after becoming a meme, the boy dubbed "King Curtis" explains what life is like now.

It is hard to pinpoint the one quote that made Curtis Holland a viral sensation. When he appeared on Wife Swap eight years ago, Holland – aka King Curtis – battled ferociously with his replacement mum Joy, who wanted to rid his home of unhealthy snacks. “Chicken nuggets is like my family,” he said at one point; “I don’t wanna be skinny! I wanna be fat and happy,” he said at another; during one particularly memorable scene he wrote “I am not lisning to your rules” on a Post-It note.

“Bacon is good for me!” perhaps comes out top. The quote – like all the others – has become an internet meme, featured in screenshots and gifs, but has additionally been remixed into a song. The original clip has over ten million views on YouTube. Now aged 15, Holland is speaking to me from his home in Vanceboro, North Carolina. “Oh yes!” he says when I ask if he still likes bacon. “Every morning my mum gets up and we all cook bacon together.”

 

Before speaking to Holland, I had eaten (ten) chicken nuggets for my tea, but when I tell him this I'm not sure he believes me. “I know some people say this just to say it,” he says, before admitting he himself had eaten some that day. “This morning that's exactly what I had.”

Holland speaks in a straightforward matter-of-fact tone that is just as endearing now as it was when he was seven. He is incredibly respectful – calling me “ma’am” at least three times – and is patient when I struggle to decipher his thick Southern accent (“pennies” for example, becomes “pinnies”, “cars” is “curs”).

“We live in a small community, and a lot of people say that I'm the movie star,” says Holland, when I ask him to explain how life has changed since appearing on TV. When I ask about life after becoming a meme, Holland is less sure. “I mean I don't have a Twitter but a lot of people say that I'm up there just about every week,” he says (in reality, the clip of his appearance alone – never mind gifs, quotes or screenshots – is tweeted multiple times a day).

There is one meme moment, however, that Holland definitely didn’t miss. In 2015, Pretty Little Liars actress Lucy Hale posted a photo to Instagram asking for an update on his life. In response, Holland created a YouTube video asking for money to rebuild cars and confidently saying “Someday I’ll get my own bacon brand.” The video got over 400,000 views.

“I went viral for I think three or four days and I was on the most views on YouTube,” explains Holland. “That was pretty cool for me, to see when I look on YouTube there my face is.” How did it make him feel, I ask? “It makes you feel good inside. One day I come home from school and I was mad, and I can tell you it just made me feel really good inside to see that [the video] was pretty much one of the top in basically the world.”

Despite enjoying the attention, Holland has no aspirations to be a TV or internet star again. He is part of an organisation called the Future Farmers of America (FFA), and plans to go to his local community college before becoming a welder. “There’s a few know-it-alls in the community,” he says, “They just say it’s crazy how you went and did all that and now you’re not going on in the movie field. That’s not something I’m really interested in.”

Yet although Holland says it’s “time to move on a little bit”, he also admits he would be open to any offers. “A lot of people say well why don’t you just get up with a bacon company and do commercials or something… I mean I wouldn’t mind doing that if they came and asked me.” After Wife Swap, a company did come and film a pilot for Holland’s own show, but it never amounted to anything. “I mean you'd be lucky to get on TV once in your whole life and I feel like I really enjoyed it when I was up there,” he says when I ask if this was disappointing.

All of this means that Holland hasn’t made much money from his viral fame. Unlike other memes I’ve spoken to, he hasn’t earned hundreds of thousands of dollars. “I believe I got 150 bucks,” he says of his “Update” YouTube video, “All the other stuff like the ‘Bacon is good for me’ songs, they’ve [the creators] made $75,000 and that’s a lot of money putting away."

“I mean it don’t annoy me because it ain’t my fault; it’s nobody’s fault in the situation. They found a way around the system,” he says when I ask if he’s annoyed at others’ making money at his expense.

Nowadays, Holland is still recognised when he is out and about, and says he has signed over one thousand autographs in his life (once he was wary of a neighbourhood policeman who was asking him to sign a parking ticket, before he realised he simply wanted an autograph). “I don’t get sick of it, but of course you’ve got a few people that want to be rude about what you’re doing.

“I really don’t care, I’m a really upbeat kind of person. If there's somebody in a computer screen telling me something that means nothing, you know?”

For Holland, then, the good outweighs the bad. Apart from being asked after by Lucy Hale, his favourite thing about going viral is that he gets to make people laugh. “If I can go up to somebody and make their day and make them smile, I feel like I’ve done a great thing,” he says.

I end the interview with Holland like I end all of my interviews with memes: by asking him if there’s anything he would like to say – a message he’d like to get out there, or a misconception he’d like to clear up – now that he has the chance.

“Oh nothing I've got to say,” he begins, “except bacon is still good for me.”

 “Living the Meme” is a series of articles exploring what happens to people after they go viral. Check out the previous articles here.

To suggest an interviewee for Living the Meme, contact Amelia on Twitter.

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.