"Circular mills": the perfect metaphor for a crowdsourced witchhunt

"The separated workers then run in a densely packed circle until they all die from exhaustion".

Via Jason Kottke, a description of "circular mills" formed by army ants:

Reading the French version of Journey to the Ants by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson (1996) during the course of my graduate studies, I remember being amazed by the description of circular mills formed by an isolated group of army ants. This phenomenon occurs when a group of foragers is separated from the main column of the raiding swarm by a perturbation of their pheromonal communication (Schneirla 1944). The separated workers then run in a densely packed circle until they all die from exhaustion (Schneirla 1971)…

This natural phenomenon is reproducible in the laboratory and has recently been shown to result from a self-organizing pattern (Couzin and Franks 2003). After a period of disorder, a random direction is collectively selected by ants, and a circular mill forms, following simple rules of motion governed by direct interactions between individuals.

Here's a video of what that looks like:

How's that for a metaphor of what happened during Reddit's "hunt for the Boston bombers"? Thousands of users, cut off from any objective measure of whether they're right or wrong, just following each other in circles until they die from exhaustion. Except that in this metaphor, it's not the ants who are hurt, but their target.

Photograph: Getty Images

Alex Hern is a technology reporter for the Guardian. He was formerly staff writer at the New Statesman. You should follow Alex on Twitter.

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Chinese loan sharks are using nudes as collateral. Is this the grim future of revenge porn?

The economics of shame. 

When female students in Guangdong, a southern province in China, applied for a small loan, they were met with a very specific demand. Send naked photos of yourself holding your ID cards, they were told – or you won’t get the money. If you don’t pay up, we’ll make the photos public.

This is according to Nandu Daily, the area’s local newspaper, but has also been reported by the Associated Press and the Financial Times. The FT places the trend in the context of the Chinese economy, where peer to peer lending sites like Jiedaibao, the platform where the students allegedly contacted the lenders, are common. Thanks to the country’s slowing economy, the paper argues, lenders are increasingly intent on making sure they’ll be repaid.

As a result, there have also been reports of property destruction and even beatings by loan sharks. Part of the problem is that these are unregulated lenders who operate through an online platform. In this case, Jiedaibao says the agreement about photos was made via different communication channels, and told the FT: “This is an illegal offline trade between victims and lenders who did it by making use of the platform.” 

This new use of naked photos in this case, though, plays to the ways that shame is now used as a weapon, especially online – and the fact that it can essentially be monetised.

Revenge porn is a huge and growing problem. As Jon Ronson noted in his book, So You’ve Been Publicly Shamed, the internet offers a unique space in which shamings (over a naked photo, or an unwise comment) can be transmitted all over the world almost instantly. For some, this threat is simply too much to cope with, as it was for the growing number teenagers who have committed suicide after being blackmailed with naked photos

It’s telling, too, that the students targeted with these demands were, reportedly at least, women. Most victims of revenge porn are also women. The shame brought down on women who appear in these photos is not so much about their nakedness, but the implication that they've behaved in a sexual way. In China, virginity is still highly valued in marriage, and your family and friends would likely take the spread of naked photos of you extremely seriously. In Behind the Red Door, Sex in China , Richard Burger notes:

Every year, thousands of Chinese women pay for an operation to restore their hymens shortly before their wedding so that husbands can see blood on the sheets on their honeymoon night.

The strange story of these students and their loans highlights two important points. First, as anti-loan shark campaigners have argued for decades, “free choice” in signing up to extortionate fees or demands when taking out a loan is a misnomer when you’re constrained by economic need and desperation.

But second, we can’t allow the shame around female sexuality to become a commodity. We need to both protect women's rights and persecute those who share images without consent, but also fight the stigma that makes these shamings possible in the first place. It's not acceptable that the suggestion of sexual activity can still be used to ruin women's lives.

Barbara Speed is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman and a staff writer at CityMetric.