David Cameron gives a press conference following the results of the Scottish referendum on independence outside 10 Downing Street. Photograph: Getty Images.
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Cameron promises English votes for English laws - what does Labour do now?

Having opposed "two classes of MPs", Miliband faces a huge political dilemma. 

Downing Street was briefing last night that David Cameron would move immediately to address "the English question" following a No vote in the Scottish referendum - and he did just that in his statement outside N0.10 a few minutes ago. The PM suggested that he would end the right of non-English MPs to vote on English laws that do not affect their constituents. He said:

I have long believed that a crucial part missing from this national discussion is England. We have heard the voice of Scotland and now the millions of voices of England must also be heard. The question of English votes for English laws - the so-called West Lothian question - requires a decisive answer.

So just as Scotland will vote separately in the Scottish parliament on their issues of tax, spending and welfare, so, too, England, as well as Wales and Northern Ireland should be able to vote on these issues. And all this must take place in tandem with, and at the same pace as, the settlement for Scotland. I hope that this will take place on a cross-party basis, I've asked William Hague to draw up these plans. We will set up a cabinet commitee right away and proposals will also be ready to the same timetable. I hope the Labour Party and other parties will contribute. 

The move is designed to respond to a genuine constitutional anomaly (one that will only intensify with further devolution to Scotland and Wales), but it is also intensely political. The Tories are keenly aware that denying Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish MPs the right to vote on English-only legislation could leave future Labour governments in office but not in power, handing the Conservatives an effective veto. Significantly, Cameron suggested that the reforms would not only apply to areas long devolved to Holyrood such as health and education, but also to tax, welfare and spending. Were the changes to be applied in their purest form, a future Labour Chancellor could be left unable to pass his or her Budget. 

For these reasons, among others, Labour has long opposed having "two classes of MPs" (although some would argue that there are already two classes). Ed Miliband has promised radical devolution to city authorities, transferring at least £30bn of funding downwards from Whitehall, but this does nothing to answer the West Lothian question (first posed by Labour MP Tam Dalyell). Whether and how to do so is the question he must now confront. 

George Eaton is political editor of the New Statesman.

Ukip's Nigel Farage and Paul Nuttall. Photo: Getty
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Is the general election 2017 the end of Ukip?

Ukip led the way to Brexit, but now the party is on less than 10 per cent in the polls. 

Ukip could be finished. Ukip has only ever had two MPs, but it held an outside influence on politics: without it, we’d probably never have had the EU referendum. But Brexit has turned Ukip into a single-issue party without an issue. Ukip’s sole remaining MP, Douglas Carswell, left the party in March 2017, and told Sky News’ Adam Boulton that there was “no point” to the party anymore. 

Not everyone in Ukip has given up, though: Nigel Farage told Peston on Sunday that Ukip “will survive”, and current leader Paul Nuttall will be contesting a seat this year. But Ukip is standing in fewer constituencies than last time thanks to a shortage of both money and people. Who benefits if Ukip is finished? It’s likely to be the Tories. 

Is Ukip finished? 

What are Ukip's poll ratings?

Ukip’s poll ratings peaked in June 2016 at 16 per cent. Since the leave campaign’s success, that has steadily declined so that Ukip is going into the 2017 general election on 4 per cent, according to the latest polls. If the polls can be trusted, that’s a serious collapse.

Can Ukip get anymore MPs?

In the 2015 general election Ukip contested nearly every seat and got 13 per cent of the vote, making it the third biggest party (although is only returned one MP). Now Ukip is reportedly struggling to find candidates and could stand in as few as 100 seats. Ukip leader Paul Nuttall will stand in Boston and Skegness, but both ex-leader Nigel Farage and donor Arron Banks have ruled themselves out of running this time.

How many members does Ukip have?

Ukip’s membership declined from 45,994 at the 2015 general election to 39,000 in 2016. That’s a worrying sign for any political party, which relies on grassroots memberships to put in the campaigning legwork.

What does Ukip's decline mean for Labour and the Conservatives? 

The rise of Ukip took votes from both the Conservatives and Labour, with a nationalist message that appealed to disaffected voters from both right and left. But the decline of Ukip only seems to be helping the Conservatives. Stephen Bush has written about how in Wales voting Ukip seems to have been a gateway drug for traditional Labour voters who are now backing the mainstream right; so the voters Ukip took from the Conservatives are reverting to the Conservatives, and the ones they took from Labour are transferring to the Conservatives too.

Ukip might be finished as an electoral force, but its influence on the rest of British politics will be felt for many years yet. 

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