Pakistan is riven by internal conflict. Its 160 million people are divided into numerous ethnic groups, with violent feuds occurring between many of them, and some parts of the country remaining beyond government control.
Map commentary by Shabeeh Abbas
North-West Frontier Province (NWFP)
Smallest province in size but second-largest in population. Pashto speakers (Pashtuns) form a rough majority. Other groups speak Hindko and Seraiki. Pakistani Pashtuns have close ties with Pashtuns
in neighbouring Afghanistan. Many sympathise with the Taliban, though secular Pashtun nationalism also exists. There are tensions between Pashtuns and non-Pashtuns.
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata)
Nominally government-controlled, but tribal leaders hold the real power. Bordering Afghanistan, this area is the centre of Taliban activity, smuggling and drug production. The town of Darra Adam Khel is one of the biggest illegal arms markets in the world. Reputed hideout of Osama bin Laden.
Largest but least populated province. Rich in natural resources, it is Pakistan’s main source of natural gas. Baluchis are the main ethnic group. Exploitation of natural resources by a punjabi-dominated elite has brought them few benefits. Construction of Gwadar port and the influx of workers have led to fears that the Baluchis will become a minority in their own land. Baluch nationalist insurgency is ongoing. The province shares a border with Iran, so it is used by Jundullah, a militant Sunni group, to carry out attacks inside Iranian territory.
Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir
Azad Kashmir is the Pakistani-administered part of the former state of Jammu and Kashmir. Most people speak Hindko. The Northern Areas were also part of Jammu and Kashmir prior to independence. They rebelled successfully and chose integration with Pakistan in 1947. Not officially a province, they have no representation in parliament. Pakistan’s only Shia-majority region. There is strong resentment against the central government.
Most populous province. Punjabi speakers form the main group. They dominate the military and are accused of exploiting other groups. Concentrated in the south, Seraiki speakers are the second-largest group. Most feel politically and economically neglected.
Major site of the ancient Indus Valley civilisation. Sindhi speakers are the main group. Most follow
a Sufic version of Islam. “Honour killings” regularly occur in rural areas. Concentrated in urban areas, Urdu speakers are the second-largest group. Communal violence between the two sides killed thousands in the 1980s.
Pakistan's economy boomed in 2005, growing faster than it had for 20 years. It has now settled to a GDP growth of 6.6 per cent - average for Asian economies. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has risen from $322m in 2002 to $3.5bn in 2006. Most of the money is going into the telecommunications and petroleum industries.
In 2003, the country had fewer than three million mobile-phone users; today there are almost 50 million.
Car ownership has been increasing at roughly 40 per cent a year since 2001. Rolls-Royce and Porsche opened their first showrooms in Pakistan last year.
According to the World Bank, Pakistan is the second best country in south Asia for doing business. That said, it takes on average 560 hours per year to comply with all Pakistani tax regulations.
Sales of leather garments rose sharply in 2006: 48 per cent more than in the previous year.
More science and engineering doctoral students are expected to graduate annually - 1,500 a year by 2010, a hundredfold increase on the 1990s figure.
Real-estate prices in Lahore have risen more than 1,000 per cent since 2001.
Twenty-four per cent of the population lives in poverty, down only 1 per cent since 1990. Infant mortality is higher than average for south Asia.
Pakistan has six Unesco World Heritage Sites. These are the archaeological ruins at Mohenjodaro; Taxila; the Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and nearby city remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol; the historical monument of Thatta; Shahi Fort and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore; and Rohtas Fort.
Basant is the famous kite-flying festival, centred in Lahore, that marks the coming of spring. It attracts crowds from all over the country.
Roughly a thousand new cybercafés are opening each year; more Google searches for "sex" emanate from Pakistan than from any other country.
Television has boomed since deregulation in 2002. More than 40 stations now include one hosting south Asia's first cross-dressing television star.
Abrar-ul-Haq is the pioneer of modern bhangra in Pakistan and one of the country's most influential figures in music.
Pakistan's "truck art" is world-famous: trucks are painted with calligraphy and popular images, such as film stars (far left).
Bapsi Sidhwa is the best-known Pakistani novelist. Her works include The Crow Eaters and Cracking India.
Lollywood refers to the Pakistan film industry, which is based in Lahore (left). Joint projects with Indian film-makers have been planned since 2004, but these have not yet materialised.
Junoon, meaning "passion" in Urdu, is Pakistan's most popular rock band, blending western and folk styles.