Libya war: in pictures

France, Britain and the US have led attacks on Libya’s army, airbases and other military targets.

Above, Libyan rebels walk past military vehicles belonging to Gaddafi's forces which were bombed by the French airforce in al-Wayfiyah.

libya

Men examine the rubble after a missile totally destroyed an administrative building in Gaddafi's residence complex, Tripoli, 20 March 2011.

libya

The building, which was about 50 metres (165 feet) from the tent where Gaddafi generally meets guests, was flattened.

libya

A US F16 plane takes off from the Aviano Airbase last night. The US, UK and France targeted Libya with Tomahawk missiles and air strikes into the early hours of today. Gaddafi has declared the Mediterranean a "battlefield".

libya

A gathering was called by the authorities at the Shati al-Hinshir cemetery in Tripoli, to mark the burial of people who they said were victims of attacks by western warplanes.

libya

Gaddafi supporters shout slogans during a rally at the same cemetery.

libya

Libyan rebels wave their flag on top of a wrecked tank belonging to Gaddafi's forces on the western entrance of Benghazi. The top US military commander Michael Mullen said the government's offensive on Benghazi has been stopped.

All photographs: AFP/Getty Images

Samira Shackle is a freelance journalist, who tweets @samirashackle. She was formerly a staff writer for the New Statesman.

Photo: Getty
Show Hide image

Scotland's vast deficit remains an obstacle to independence

Though the country's financial position has improved, independence would still risk severe austerity. 

For the SNP, the annual Scottish public spending figures bring good and bad news. The good news, such as it is, is that Scotland's deficit fell by £1.3bn in 2016/17. The bad news is that it remains £13.3bn or 8.3 per cent of GDP – three times the UK figure of 2.4 per cent (£46.2bn) and vastly higher than the white paper's worst case scenario of £5.5bn. 

These figures, it's important to note, include Scotland's geographic share of North Sea oil and gas revenue. The "oil bonus" that the SNP once boasted of has withered since the collapse in commodity prices. Though revenue rose from £56m the previous year to £208m, this remains a fraction of the £8bn recorded in 2011/12. Total public sector revenue was £312 per person below the UK average, while expenditure was £1,437 higher. Though the SNP is playing down the figures as "a snapshot", the white paper unambiguously stated: "GERS [Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland] is the authoritative publication on Scotland’s public finances". 

As before, Nicola Sturgeon has warned of the threat posed by Brexit to the Scottish economy. But the country's black hole means the risks of independence remain immense. As a new state, Scotland would be forced to pay a premium on its debt, resulting in an even greater fiscal gap. Were it to use the pound without permission, with no independent central bank and no lender of last resort, borrowing costs would rise still further. To offset a Greek-style crisis, Scotland would be forced to impose dramatic austerity. 

Sturgeon is undoubtedly right to warn of the risks of Brexit (particularly of the "hard" variety). But for a large number of Scots, this is merely cause to avoid the added turmoil of independence. Though eventual EU membership would benefit Scotland, its UK trade is worth four times as much as that with Europe. 

Of course, for a true nationalist, economics is irrelevant. Independence is a good in itself and sovereignty always trumps prosperity (a point on which Scottish nationalists align with English Brexiteers). But if Scotland is to ever depart the UK, the SNP will need to win over pragmatists, too. In that quest, Scotland's deficit remains a vast obstacle. 

George Eaton is political editor of the New Statesman.