In search of peace and contentment

Paul Miller gives an overview of the origins and basic principles of the Amish faith based on his in

The Amish in North America are a religious counter-culture that has not only persisted but also thrived in the hustle of modern Western society. With only about 5,000 members in 1900, they were widely predicted to fade and vanish from the United States cultural scene. To the contrary, the religious sect now numbers about 175,000 and is found in 26 states and the province of Ontario. The Amish continue their traditional lifestyle apart from mainstream society and they both survive and thrive in North America.

The Amish are a minority religious group with their roots in the Anabaptist movement which emerged in 1525 in the middle of the Protestant Reformation. The Anabaptists (the name means to “re-baptize”) took issue with Ulrich Zwingli and Martin Luther, believing that the prominent leaders of the reformation too soon compromised with the religious establishment. They were unwilling to follow through with reforms that may have truly restored Christianity to its biblical forms.

Anabaptists differed with Protestant reformers on three significant issues. First, they believed the true church must be a voluntary association of believers who personally choose to follow Christ. They rejected infant baptism as a means of declaring affiliation with the church and of civil registration. Second, the Anabaptists maintained that church and state are by God’s design separate institutions. The foremost allegiance of believers was to the church and only secondarily to the state as long as it did not compromise commitment to Christ. Third, Anabaptists held that the Christian cannot use violence either in self-defense or in defense of the nation-state. They believed that the command of Jesus calls Christians to suffer loss or injury rather than to protect themselves by force.

Because of their religious stance, Anabaptists were severely persecuted by Catholic and Protestant leaders alike. Since both church and state were allied, Anabaptists were hounded by religious and civil authorities. Thousands suffered severe persecution and death by fire and sword.

More than 175 years later, the Amish developed out of an internal division in 1693 that called for stricter church standards and clearer distinctions from the rest of society. The Amish gained their name from Jacob Ammann, a prominent leader who challenged laxity in the religious life of the group.

By the time the Amish were established, capital prosecution of Anabaptists had ceased. However, other forms of intimidation and persecution actually intensified. Many of the Amish and other Anabaptists were successful farmers and artisans, but the law of the land made their property subject to confiscation and denied them the right to own land. In many instances, they were driven from arable land and forced to move into the mountains.

By 1720 the Amish followed their Anabaptist cousins emigrating to the New World. Thousands moved to North America and continued to emigrate for the next century and a half. They came in search of tolerance, religious freedom and economic opportunity so often denied them in Europe.

The religious convictions of the Amish are evident in their faith community where they practice a lifestyle of nonconformity. Within their church communities the Amish practice love and mutual concern for all members. While they do not practice a community of goods, the Amish help each other with aid when disaster strikes and also help with medical expenses. The Amish reject government subsidies of welfare, unemployment compensation or Social Security retirement pensions.

The Amish believe the scriptural teachings of a clear separation between the church and the world call them to distinctive patterns of dress, transportation, use of electricity and telephone, and simple homes and lifestyles. The principle they apply to modern life is to always weigh cultural and technological changes in view of their potential impact on spiritual commitment, community values and family life.

The Amish believe the ethic of personal integrity, community values and a disciplined spiritual walk produce true contentment and fulfillment. They are not perfect, but their patterns result in a life that is admired and coveted by many in the turmoil of modern society.

Paul Miller is the executive director of the Amish & Mennonite Heritage Center, an interpretation center located in Berlin, Ohio, in the middle of the world’s largest community of Amish.
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Theresa May’s stage-managed election campaign keeps the public at bay

Jeremy Corbyn’s approach may be chaotic, but at least it’s more authentic.

The worst part about running an election campaign for a politician? Having to meet the general public. Those ordinary folk can be a tricky lot, with their lack of regard for being on-message, and their pesky real-life concerns.

But it looks like Theresa May has decided to avoid this inconvenience altogether during this snap general election campaign, as it turns out her visit to Leeds last night was so stage-managed that she barely had to face the public.

Accusations have been whizzing around online that at a campaign event at the Shine building in Leeds, the Prime Minister spoke to a room full of guests invited by the party, rather than local people or people who work in the building’s office space.

The Telegraph’s Chris Hope tweeted a picture of the room in which May was addressing her audience yesterday evening a little before 7pm. He pointed out that, being in Leeds, she was in “Labour territory”:

But a few locals who spied this picture online claimed that the audience did not look like who you’d expect to see congregated at Shine – a grade II-listed Victorian school that has been renovated into a community project housing office space and meeting rooms.

“Ask why she didn’t meet any of the people at the business who work in that beautiful building. Everyone there was an invite-only Tory,” tweeted Rik Kendell, a Leeds-based developer and designer who says he works in the Shine building. “She didn’t arrive until we’d all left for the day. Everyone in the building past 6pm was invite-only . . . They seemed to seek out the most clinical corner for their PR photos. Such a beautiful building to work in.”

Other tweeters also found the snapshot jarring:

Shine’s founders have pointed out that they didn’t host or invite Theresa May – rather the party hired out the space for a private event: “All visitors pay for meeting space in Shine and we do not seek out, bid for, or otherwise host any political parties,” wrote managing director Dawn O'Keefe. The guestlist was not down to Shine, but to the Tory party.

The audience consisted of journalists and around 150 Tory activists, according to the Guardian. This was instead of employees from the 16 offices housed in the building. I have asked the Conservative Party for clarification of who was in the audience and whether it was invite-only and am awaiting its response.

Jeremy Corbyn accused May of “hiding from the public”, and local Labour MP Richard Burgon commented that, “like a medieval monarch, she simply briefly relocated her travelling court of admirers to town and then moved on without so much as a nod to the people she considers to be her lowly subjects”.

But it doesn’t look like the Tories’ painstaking stage-management is a fool-proof plan. Having uniform audiences of the party faithful on the campaign trail seems to be confusing the Prime Minister somewhat. During a visit to a (rather sparsely populated) factory in Clay Cross, Derbyshire, yesterday, she appeared to forget where exactly on the campaign trail she was:

The management of Corbyn’s campaign has also resulted in gaffes – but for opposite reasons. A slightly more chaotic approach has led to him facing the wrong way, with his back to the cameras.

Corbyn’s blunder is born out of his instinct to address the crowd rather than the cameras – May’s problem is the other way round. Both, however, seem far more comfortable talking to the party faithful, even if they are venturing out of safe seat territory.

Anoosh Chakelian is senior writer at the New Statesman.

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