Festivals and celebrations

How, for Zoroastrians, New Year comes on the first day of spring

By far the most important occasion in the Zoroastrian calendar is the celebration of Nowruz, the first day of spring and the beginning of the New Year.

It occurs at the moment of the spring equinox and it is indeed a sweet and meaningful time when life truly returns afresh after the darkness and gloom of the winter months.

Flowers are in bud, or blooming once again, while birds are building their nests and sheep are producing lambs.

It makes complete sense for the New Year to begin at this moment and so the festival marks the first day of the first month of the year. The Iranian calendar follows this solar system even thought there have been periods of Iranian history when the Islamic lunar month system with Arabic names was used.

I have always felt very moved by the rituals that we perform to commemorate the arrival of Nowruz and I retain almost magical/sacred memories from childhood of my parents chanting prayers and then congratulating family members with the arrival of the equinox with rose water, a symbolic coin in the hand and sweets in the mouth run deep.

We still do this. And before this moment, on the day of the equinox we prepare a special ceremonial table which we call the Haft Shin Table (the 7 “Sh” table) which is a display of 7 items which represents God’s creation of life sustaining/enhancing items: evergreens and wheat/lentil shoots to represent the importance of plant life, bread, cheese and milk to represent the relationship with animals, wine to represent merriment and also medicinal use, sweets to represent happiness, rosewater to represent happiness and fragrance, spring flowers such as a hyacinth or narcissi which are both beautiful and fragrant and we also have coins to represent prosperity. The table will also have a copy of our prayer book, the Avesta, with a green cover. It is a table that has a high aesthetic appeal which is possibly why it has such a deep resonance.

In anticipation of the arrival of Nowruz, on the nearest preceding Wednesday evening, bonfires are made and people jump over the fire joyously, presumably a throwback reference to the importance of fire in the religious culture. This celebration is known as Chahar Shanbeh Soori.

The end of the 13 days of celebration is known as Sizdah beh Dar which means the 13th outside. On this day everyone is supposed to spend the day in a local beauty spot or park with family or friends enjoying a picnic and on this day the Nowruz table is dismantled and the wheat shoots are thrown into a stream. Some people will knot tufts of grass while reciting a traditional couplet. After this the holiday period is over.

It is not only Zoroastrians who still celebrate Nowruz but all Iranian peoples which include Kurds, Tajiks and Afghans, i.e. those who once were part of Greater Iran, the territory of Iranian peoples which formed part of the empire, (during the 3 periods when the Achaemenians, the Parthians and the Sassanians ruled) where the languages spoken are of the Iranian language group and where the Nowruz table in some shape or form is still prepared. It should be said that Iranian non-Zoroastrians prepare a Haft Sin (7 “S”) table and these days so enthusiastically celebrate Chahar Shanbeh Soori that the present regime has tried to suppress these activities as indeed they tried to suppress Nowruz which has coincided with Ashura – an annual Shia Muslim mourning period.

Zoroastrians also have festivals of water in mid-summer (Tirgan), of harvest in mid September which coincides with the autumn equinox (Mehrgan) of fire (Sadeh) 50 days before Nowruz and also celebrate the longest night on December 21st (Shab e Yalda = Yule?)when once again the days start to become longer. This coincides with the Mithraic festival celebrating the return of the sun which the Romans knew as Dies Natalis Solis Invictae which may explain the choice of December 25th to mark the birth of Christ.

All these festivals are marked with a jashan or prayers led by a priest with an urn of fire being stoked with incense, myrrh and sandal wood. Wine is drunk and food is consumed as a community, and often dancing and music will spontaneously break out. One of the popular pastimes, is to tell fortunes in a light hearted fashion selecting at random verses from the verses of Hafez.

The Zoroastrian calendar of 12 months x 30 days with 5 intercalary days attributes a different name from the attributes of God, or the natural world to each month and also to each day of the 30 days, rather than having 7 days of the week x 4., thus one day may be called, wind, fire, water, earth, animal, etc. When a month and a day have the same name there is a further festival known as the –Gan festivals.

There are also 6 annual 5 day periods when endowed feasts in memory of deceased members of the family are held and known as Gahambar. It is considered an act of piety to leave a sum of money or land to pay for a memorial feast each year after death. All members of the community are expected to participate in these as the priests go round to each household in which these feasts have been endowed and after saying prayers and pronouncing the names of the deceased in the family, hand out dried fruit and nuts, and bread, if not pounded lamb, coriander and chick peas. It is thought that if everyone participates, then the needy will benefit from the handouts without feeling embarrassed while those who do not need to take much will refrain from doing so. There is a great sense of excitement and fun for children particularly when these periods approach as they know they will be able to replenish their stores of goodies to sustain them till the next feast.

In the contemporary context of modernity and diaspora, these circuits around family homes have generally been replaced by feasts in the community halls of different Zoroastrian centres.

As should be clear, the Zoroastrian calendar is punctuated with occasions which allow community members to get together to express solidarity and to enjoy a bit of music and dancing which is very popular along with food and often some home made wine which has traditionally been an expertise of Zoroastrians.

Shahin Bakhradnia is the grand daughter of a renown Yazdi priest/poet of 19th century. She grew up in England, and has published and lectured on Zoroastrianism.
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Donald Trump wants to terminate the Environmental Protection Agency - can he?

"Epa, Epa, Eeeepaaaaa" – Grampa Simpson.

 

There have been countless jokes about US President Donald Trump’s aversion to academic work, with many comparing him to an infant. The Daily Show created a browser extension aptly named “Make Trump Tweets Eight Again” that converts the font of Potus’ tweets to crayon scrawlings. Indeed, it is absurd that – even without the childish font – one particular bill that was introduced within the first month of Trump taking office looked just as puerile. Proposed by Matt Gaetz, a Republican who had been in Congress for barely a month, “H.R. 861” was only one sentence long:

“The Environmental Protection Agency shall terminate on December 31, 2018”.

If this seems like a stunt, that is because Gaetz is unlikely to actually achieve his stated aim. Drafting such a short bill without any co-sponsors – and leaving it to a novice Congressman to present – is hardly the best strategy to ensure a bill will pass. 

Still, Republicans' distrust for environmental protections is well-known - long-running cartoon show The Simpsons even did a send up of the Epa where the agency had its own private army. So what else makes H.R. 861 implausible?

Well, the 10-word-long statement neglects to address the fact that many federal environmental laws assume the existence of or defer to the Epa. In the event that the Epa was abolished, all of these laws – from the 1946 Atomic Energy Act to the 2016 Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act – would need to be amended. Preferably, a way of doing this would be included in the bill itself.

Additionally, for the bill to be accepted in the Senate there would have to be eight Democratic senators who agreed with its premise. This is an awkward demand when not even all Republicans back Trump. The man Trum appointed to the helm of the Epa, Scott Pruitt, is particularly divisive because of his long opposition to the agency. Republican Senator Susan Collins of Maine said that she was hostile to the appointment of a man who was “so manifestly opposed to the mission of the agency” that he had sued the Epa 14 times. Polls from 2016 and 2017 suggests that most Americans would be also be opposed to the agency’s termination.

But if Trump is incapable of entirely eliminating the Epa, he has other ways of rendering it futile. In January, Potus banned the Epa and National Park Services from “providing updates on social media or to reporters”, and this Friday, Trump plans to “switch off” the government’s largest citizen-linked data site – the Epa’s Open Data Web Service. This is vital not just for storing and displaying information on climate change, but also as an accessible way of civilians viewing details of local environmental changes – such as chemical spills. Given the administration’s recent announcement of his intention to repeal existing safeguards, such as those to stabilise the climate and protect the environment, defunding this public data tool is possibly an attempt to decrease awareness of Trump’s forthcoming actions.

There was also a recent update to the webpage of the Epa's Office of Science and Technology, which saw all references to “science-based” work removed, in favour of an emphasis on “national economically and technologically achievable standards”. 

Trump’s reshuffle of the Epa's priorities puts the onus on economic activity at the expense of public health and environmental safety. Pruitt, who is also eager to #MakeAmericaGreatAgain, spoke in an interview of his desire to “exit” the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement. He was led to this conclusion because of his belief that the agreement means “contracting our economy to serve and really satisfy Europe, and China, and India”.

 

Rather than outright closure of the Epa, its influence and funding are being leached away. H.R. 861 might be a subtle version of one of Potus’ Twitter taunts – empty and outrageous – but it is by no means the only way to drastically alter the Epa’s landscape. With Pruitt as Epa Administrator, the organisation may become a caricature of itself – as in The Simpsons Movie. Let us hope that the #resistance movements started by “Rogue” Epa and National Parks social media accounts are able to stave off the vultures until there is “Hope” once more.

 

Anjuli R. K. Shere is a 2016/17 Wellcome Scholar and science intern at the New Statesman

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