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The tiny change you can make that will transform the internet for blind people

We use social media for the same reasons as everyone else, and you have the ability to reach us.

On 8 July 2010, whilst on operations in Afghanistan my patrol was hit by an IED. The result of the blast was my left eye being ripped out of its socket. When I returned to the UK, the doctor explained to me that my left eye had been completely and utterly destroyed. Not only that, but due to my injury, my right eye would never work again, and leaving it in there meant there was a risk of blood clots.

A couple of days later, they did the surgery to remove it.  I remember waking up afterwards feeling like someone had shoved a red hot poker into my eye socket. I had entered a confusing, painful world, and it took me a long time to figure out the full impact of what had happened.

This was when blind veterans approached me with their offer of a rehabilitation programme. My rehabilitation officer handed me a flat, smooth, rectangular device. And with this iPhone, my journey back into the modern world began.

I had a Facebook account, and at first after my injury I logged in on my laptop, using the keyboard to navigate, and software to read aloud the text. It was a frustrating process, not least because I had to listen to every individual story. When I got the iPhone, though, it was like magic.

When you think of speaking software, you may be imagine the slow robotic attempt at received pronunciation. In fact, there is an entire world of voices from Northern Irish to a rather authoritarian South African. I settled for Karen who is  an upbeat Australian.

On an iPhone, voiceover software works by reading out the icon or text your thumb is over. I can use all the same swipe and scroll features that regular iPhone users enjoy, with the exception that I have to double tap to click on something. Thanks to touch typing, I can also write quickly - essential during heated Twitter battles. 

Even speaking software, though, has its limits. When I think back over my own life, I see how images shaped me into the man I am today. I’ll never forget the image of the towers expelling the dark clouds of smoke over New York’s clear September skyline, or the bus burst and broken in the streets of my hometown on 7 July 2005. This is all the more true with social media. When you have only 280 characters for writing, you can say so much with a powerful image. A great picture will be shared and shared. And yet it can be lost on me.

In this brave new world of pets in tutus, cats who resemble dictators and wardrobe malfunctions of political candidates, blind users can be left wondering how bad can a hairpiece be to warrant this level of anger. After all, a picture that has caused such furious debate may just be read out as “box contains image”. 

Different social media platforms have different approaches to this problem. Facebook automatically uses its software to try to recognise what the image is. It will give you a very rough estimation of whether it is a natural landscape, or someone is taking a selfie. It will tell you if there is a man or a woman in the picture, if a man’s got a beard and glasses, if there’s animals, water or clouds. It can go slightly wrong though - it assumes any indoor space is a basketball court. Apparently my friends are now spending a lot of time shooting hoops. 

On Twitter, on the other hand, it is up to the users to make their pictures accessible to the blind. You can describe your own images, so that when a blind users scrolls over the image it is replaced with a specific description.

One of the first images I came across that had such a description was a picture someone had posted of their dog in a hoodie. The way they described it, the dog was wearing a hoodie with holes cut out for the dog’s ears to poke through. They didn’t say which breed of dog, but I automatically imagined a collie, close up, in someone’s room. 

It wasn’t a groundbreaking photo - it was just normal. As I scrolled past it, I wasn’t conscious about being blind.

Recently, I tweeted screenshots of the simple steps that bring up the caption box and the public support for access was overwhelming, with the Tweet being seen (or heard) over 24 million times.

Captioning is about normalising social media use for the blind and allowing us full access to the conversation. After I lost my sight, I felt cut off from the world, even when people were there with me, because I couldn’t experience the social interactions others take for granted - facial cues, body language. People with a wide range of disabilities use social media to get involved with social issues, chat to support networks or just escape for a little while (possibly an afternoon) looking up goats that climb trees. 

In other words, we use social media for the same reasons as everyone else, and now you have the ability to reach us in the same way. Make us laugh with with you, make us cry with you, make us rally to your cause or oppose it with intensity. Just don’t leave us out.

Please remember to caption your image with a description. It’s up to you what you write, but I would say use your language as well as you can. Go wild.

Rob Long is a blind veteran and martial arts competitor. Follow him on Twitter @_Red_Long.

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The UK is suffering from an extreme case of generational inequality

Millennials across the developed world are struggling. But the UK stands out. 

 

“Don’t it always seem to go, that you don’t know what you’ve got till it’s gone”

Joni Mitchell’s lyrics may refer to her first trip to Hawaii, but they could just as easily apply to UK trends in generational living standards that the Resolution Foundation’s Intergenerational Commission has uncovered. That’s particularly so in light of new analysis comparing these trends internationally.

While there are huge living standards differences between high-income countries, there is also much shared ground, with the financial crisis and demographic patterns putting pressure on younger generations’ living standards everywhere. But the UK stands out. With the partial exception of Spain, no other country in living memory has experienced as large a “boom and bust” in generation-on-generation progress across both incomes and home ownership rates.

On incomes, the millennials (born 1980-2000) who have reached their early 30s are just 6 per cent better off than generation X (born 1966-80) when they were the same age. This is very small progress indeed when compared with the progress older generations are enjoying – baby boomers (born 1946-65) in their late 60s are 29 per cent better off than the silent generation (born 1926-1945).

These sorts of slowdowns have occurred in most countries, but not to the same extent. In the US, millennials in their early 30s are doing 5 per cent worse than their predecessors, but this compares to relatively modest 11 per cent gains for generation X relative to the baby boomers. In fact, in the US – despite higher levels of income – the absence of generational progress is what stands out. Typical incomes in the US for those aged 45-49 are no higher for those born in the late 1960s than they were for those born in the early 1920s.

Back to the UK. The “had it then lost it” story is also clear when we look at housing. Our previous research has shown that young people in the UK face much higher housing costs (relative to incomes) than older generations did when they were making their way in the world. In a large part this is driven by the rise and fall of home ownership.UK home ownership rates surged by 29 percentage points between the greatest generation (born 1911-1926) and the baby boomers, but this generation-on-generation progress has been all but wiped out for millennials. Their home ownership rate in their late 20s, at 33 per cent, is 27 percentage points lower than the rate for the baby boomers at the same age (60 per cent).

This fall between generations is much smaller in other countries in which housing is a key areas of concern such as Australia (a 12 percentage points fall from boomers to millennials) and the US (a 6 percentage point fall). As with incomes, the UK shows the strongest boom and bust – large generation-on-generation gains for today’s older cohorts followed by stagnation or declines for younger ones.

Let’s be clear though, the UK is a relatively good place to grow up. Ours is one of the most advanced economies in the world, with high employment rates for all age groups. In other advanced economies, young people have suffered immensely as a result of the financial crisis. For example, in Greece millennials in their early 30s are a shocking 31 per cent worse off than generation X were at the same age. In Spain today the youth (15-30) unemployment rate is still above 30 per cent, over three times higher than it is in the UK.

But, if everything is relative – before the parking lot came the paradise – then the UK’s situation isn’t one to brush away. Small income gains are, obviously, better than big income falls. But what matters for a young person in the UK today probably isn’t how well they’re doing relative to a young person in Italy but how this compares with their expectations, which have been shaped by the outcomes of their parents and grandparents. It’s no surprise that the UK is one of the most pessimistic countries about the prospects for today’s young.

The good news, though, is that it doesn’t have to be like this. In other parts of the world and at other times, large generation-on-generation progress has happened. Building more homes, having strong collective bargaining and delivering active labour market policies that incentivise work are things we know make a difference. As politicians attempt to tackle the UK’s intergenerational challenges, they should remember to look overseas for lessons.