Dark skies: a view of the milky way during a meteor shower, Myanmar. Photo: Getty
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Dark energy vs dark matter: a battle of two cosmic monsters

Michael Brooks’s Science Column.

It might be the most prestigious journal in physics, but the Physical Review Letters is no good at teasers. Early in November it published a paper entitled: Indications of a Late-Time Interaction in the Dark Sector. Hardly a great headline for what should have been, in the style of Alien v Predator, “Dark Matter v Dark Energy” – a story of two cosmic monsters locked in eternal conflict.

We believe these monsters exist, but we haven’t seen either of them and we know very little about them. We have suspected the existence of dark matter since 1933, when a Swiss astronomer noticed something odd about the way galaxy clusters spin. They looked like they were being held together by the gravitational pull of invisible matter, which he duly named dark matter. We have been trying to see the stuff ever since, to no avail.

Dark energy is a more recent idea. It, too, comes from astronomical observations, this time of supernovae. A 1998 analysis of the light from these stellar explosions suggested that not only is the universe expanding, but this expansion is getting faster all the time. That can only happen with the help of energy from some unknown source – hence dark energy.

Together, dark energy and dark matter make up 96 per cent of the universe. Now, it turns out, dark energy may be consuming the dark matter.

The discovery came from more observations: this time, of the rate at which cosmic structures form. Dark matter seeds galaxy formation, but galaxies aren’t forming as fast as we would expect. This would make sense if dark matter were disappearing from the universe, but various straightforward explanations for why that might occur have failed to correspond with the observed facts. Now a team of British and Italian researchers has created a computer model that does match the observations. Critical to its success is the idea that dark matter is slowly being converted to dark energy.

According to the simulation, the ingestion of dark matter would be a relatively recent phenomenon, beginning roughly eight billion years ago. If it is really happening, it is important to understand, because our attempts to chart the history of the universe depend on dark matter’s role in forming cosmic structures.

Working from observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation, which came into being roughly 300,000 years after the Big Bang, researchers have shown that the radiation’s distribution through the universe would have seeded long filaments of dark matter. The gravitational pull of these filaments attracted the first atoms of normal matter, gradually creating stars and galaxies in long strings. This is the kind of structure we see now.

Yet if dark energy is slowly taking over from dark matter our previous calculations of cosmic history will have to be corrected. And intriguingly (spoiler alert), it will change our predictions. If dark energy is consuming dark matter, the universe will become dominated by dark energy more quickly than previously thought. That will precipitate an inglorious finale in which dark energy’s repulsive power pushes everything interesting away from us.

Eventually, all the other galaxies will be so far away, and receding so fast, that their light will never reach what remains of our Milky Way. Nearby stars will burn out. Our sun is expected to end its life as a huge single crystal of carbon: a dark diamond in the sky, with no surrounding starlight to make it sparkle.

Afterwards, all the atoms will drift apart and then the fundamental particles of matter will slowly decay to nothing. It’s not a Hollywood ending, but don’t complain that you weren’t warned. 

Michael Brooks holds a PhD in quantum physics. He writes a weekly science column for the New Statesman, and his most recent book is At the Edge of Uncertainty: 11 Discoveries Taking Science by Surprise.

This article first appeared in the 27 November 2014 issue of the New Statesman, The rise of the insurgents

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Marcus Hutchins: What we know so far about the arrest of the hero hacker

The 23-year old who stopped the WannaCry malware which attacked the NHS has been arrested in the US. 

In May, Marcus Hutchins - who goes by the online name Malware Tech - became a national hero after "accidentally" discovering a way to stop the WannaCry virus that had paralysed parts of the NHS.

Now, the 23-year-old darling of cyber security is facing charges of cyber crime following a bizarre turn of events that have left many baffled. So what do we know about his indictment?

Arrest

Hutchins, from Ilfracombe in Devon, was reportedly arrested by the FBI in Las Vegas on Wednesday before travelling back from cyber security conferences Black Hat and Def Con.

He is now due to appear in court in Las Vegas later today after being accused of involvement with a piece of malware used to access people's bank accounts.

"Marcus Hutchins... a citizen and resident of the United Kingdom, was arrested in the United States on 2 August, 2017, in Las Vegas, Nevada, after a grand jury in the Eastern District of Wisconsin returned a six-count indictment against Hutchins for his role in creating and distributing the Kronos banking Trojan," said the US Department of Justice.

"The charges against Hutchins, and for which he was arrested, relate to alleged conduct that occurred between in or around July 2014 and July 2015."

His court appearance comes after he was arraigned in Las Vegas yesterday. He made no statement beyond a series of one-word answers to basic questions from the judge, the Guardian reports. A public defender said Hutchins had no criminal history and had previously cooperated with federal authorities. 

The malware

Kronos, a so-called Trojan, is a kind of malware that disguises itself as legitimate software while harvesting unsuspecting victims' online banking login details and other financial data.

It emerged in July 2014 on a Russian underground forum, where it was advertised for $7,000 (£5,330), a relatively high figure at the time, according to the BBC.

Shortly after it made the news, a video demonstrating the malware was posted to YouTube allegedly by Hutchins' co-defendant, who has not been named. Hutchins later tweeted: "Anyone got a kronos sample."

His mum, Janet Hutchins, told the Press Association it is "hugely unlikely" he was involved because he spent "enormous amounts of time" fighting attacks.

Research?

Meanwhile Ryan Kalember, a security researcher from Proofpoint, told the Guardian that the actions of researchers investigating malware may sometimes look criminal.

“This could very easily be the FBI mistaking legitimate research activity with being in control of Kronos infrastructure," said Kalember. "Lots of researchers like to log in to crimeware tools and interfaces and play around.”

The indictment alleges that Hutchins created and sold Kronos on internet forums including the AlphaBay dark web market, which was shut down last month.

"Sometimes you have to at least pretend to be selling something interesting to get people to trust you,” added Kalember. “It’s not an uncommon thing for researchers to do and I don’t know if the FBI could tell the difference.”

It's a sentiment echoed by US cyber-attorney Tor Ekeland, who told Radio 4's Today Programme: "I can think of a number of examples of legitimate software that would potentially be a felony under this theory of prosecution."

Hutchins could face 40 years in jail if found guilty, Ekelend said, but he added that no victims had been named.

This article also appears on NS Tech, a new division of the New Statesman focusing on the intersection of technology and politics.

Oscar Williams is editor of the NewStatesman's sister site NSTech.