Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow-angle camera. Image: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA
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Rosetta becomes the first spacecraft to ever go into orbit around a comet

After a ten year chase, Rosetta became the first ever spacecraft to intercept and go into orbit around a comet - and over the next 18 months will begin searching for clues left over from the earliest moments of our Solar System.

Yesterday, after ten years of chasing, the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Rosetta spacecraft became the first ever to intercept and go into orbit around a comet. Now scientists can begin the next step in one of the most exciting investigations into how the Solar System formed that we’ve seen so far.

ESA scientists brought Rosetta to within 100km of the comet – a 3km by 5km rock called 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko – and established a stable orbit by slowing it down with its thrusters. Perhaps surprisingly, while it’s taken ten years to get there, 67P was only discovered 50 years ago, but while not as famous a comet as Halley it’s just as scientifically interesting. Comets are considered to be primitive building blocks of the Solar System, and relics of the formation of the planets, while some even believe that they provided Earth with both water and other key ingredients too which were necessary for igniting the evolution of life. 

67P was first discovered in 1969 by Soviet astronomers Ivanovych Churyumov and Svetlana Ivanova Gerasimenko. The hope is that Rosetta will unlock the secrets of this early history – which is why it was named after the Rosetta Stone, the discovery of which in 1799 provided the key to translating Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and Demotic script into Ancient Greek (and thus any other language). It was launched from Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, in March 2004, into a long journey of loops around the Sun as it aimed to get onto the same trajectory as 67P.

Rosetta has trekked over 6bn km, passing by Earth three times, Mars once, and soaring past two asteroids, using the gravitational pull of those objects to change velocity and catch up with 67P. The riskiest part of this was when it was put into hibernation mode for 31 months to conserve power as its orbit brought it out to a distance roughly equal to the orbit of Jupiter and then back in again – where it was successfully awakened in January of this year, for the final part of the voyage.

Since May, Rosetta has performed a series of ten rendezvous manoeuvres to gradually fine-tune the spacecraft’s speed and trajectory to match those of the comet, which travels through space at speeds of up to 135,000km/h. Despite the unprecedented complexity of the mission, Rosetta’s smooth arrival was confirmed yesterday morning.

Here’s a video from the ESA showing Rosetta’s near-decade-long journey, and here’s how it’s going to orbit around 67P closer and closer:

The spacecraft now has quite the adventure to come, edging closer to the comet over the next six weeks in two triangular-shaped trajectories, first from a distance of 100km and then at 50km. Depending on the activity of the comet, it will further attempt a near-circular orbit from a distance of 30km, simultaneously scrutinising the comet’s surface for a suitable landing site for its small lander probe - Philae, named after an obelisk that was also used to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs in the 19th century.

Philae will, sometime in November, detach from the main body of the spacecraft and anchor itself to the surface of the comet with a high-powered harpoon. Meanwhile, Rosetta will spend the next 18 months analysing the comet from every angle, retrieving crucial data enabling scientists to investigate how planets were created. The spacecraft will also accompany the comet around the Sun as it moves back out towards the orbit of Jupiter.

The mission has some similarities with Japan’s 2005 Hayabusa mission, which rendezvoused with and landed on an asteroid named Itokawa. It was meant to scoop up material from the asteroid’s surface, and return it to Earth for study – those samples arrived in 2010, but we know that its capture mechanism malfunctioned. To this day, there is some uncertainty as to whether the capsule managed to successfully collect the asteroid rock fragments.

The Rosetta mission is significantly more complex, too – while both Itokawa and 67P have miniscule gravitational pull, the former’s orbit around the Sun is relatively simple, and Hayabusa simply chased Itokawa closely around the Sun in the same orbit. Rosetta will, by reducing its speed to less than a metre per second, genuinely orbit 67P. As the comet moves towards the Sun and heats up, there are also likely to be gas and dust particles shed off into space to form its tail – and initial photographs sent to us by Rosetta, the clearest ever of a comet, do show some emissions already.

Yesterday, the elated ESA science and mission control experts celebrated the long awaited arrival, jokingly describing it as being similar to arriving at “Scientific Disneyland”. The arrival was streamed live on the ESA’s website, and Rosetta is already sending back incredible high-resolution images of the surface of 67P. So far, it looks a lot rockier and more solid than expected – less like a “dirty snowball”, and more like an asteroid.

Around the internet, there was excitement at the arrival of Rosetta. The hashtag #RosettaAreWeThereYet flooded Twitter, as people from all over the world eagerly awaited the news, like impatient school kids – even the Philae lander’s own Twitter account got involved:

But it didn’t stop there - after Rosetta finally reached its destination, even former Star Trek captain William Shatner joined the fun by engaging in playful chitchat, checking on operations with the Nasa and ESA Twitter account.

Although we know what the comet looks like from the outside, we don’t know what it looks like from the inside, and that’s what Rosetta and Philae will be uncovering over the next few months - as long as they have enough power from the craft’s huge solar panels, that is, as unlike most probes that venture out past the orbit of Mars, it has no onboard nuclear generator.

As one mission controller explained, Rosetta is going to finally “unlock the treasure chest of our own history”.

Curtis Holland
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Living the Meme: What happened to the "Bacon is good for me" boy?

Eight years after becoming a meme, the boy dubbed "King Curtis" explains what life is like now.

It is hard to pinpoint the one quote that made Curtis Holland a viral sensation. When he appeared on Wife Swap eight years ago, Holland – aka King Curtis – battled ferociously with his replacement mum Joy, who wanted to rid his home of unhealthy snacks. “Chicken nuggets is like my family,” he said at one point; “I don’t wanna be skinny! I wanna be fat and happy,” he said at another; during one particularly memorable scene he wrote “I am not lisning to your rules” on a Post-It note.

“Bacon is good for me!” perhaps comes out top. The quote – like all the others – has become an internet meme, featured in screenshots and gifs, but has additionally been remixed into a song. The original clip has over ten million views on YouTube. Now aged 15, Holland is speaking to me from his home in Vanceboro, North Carolina. “Oh yes!” he says when I ask if he still likes bacon. “Every morning my mum gets up and we all cook bacon together.”

 

Before speaking to Holland, I had eaten (ten) chicken nuggets for my tea, but when I tell him this I'm not sure he believes me. “I know some people say this just to say it,” he says, before admitting he himself had eaten some that day. “This morning that's exactly what I had.”

Holland speaks in a straightforward matter-of-fact tone that is just as endearing now as it was when he was seven. He is incredibly respectful – calling me “ma’am” at least three times – and is patient when I struggle to decipher his thick Southern accent (“pennies” for example, becomes “pinnies”, “cars” is “curs”).

“We live in a small community, and a lot of people say that I'm the movie star,” says Holland, when I ask him to explain how life has changed since appearing on TV. When I ask about life after becoming a meme, Holland is less sure. “I mean I don't have a Twitter but a lot of people say that I'm up there just about every week,” he says (in reality, the clip of his appearance alone – never mind gifs, quotes or screenshots – is tweeted multiple times a day).

There is one meme moment, however, that Holland definitely didn’t miss. In 2015, Pretty Little Liars actress Lucy Hale posted a photo to Instagram asking for an update on his life. In response, Holland created a YouTube video asking for money to rebuild cars and confidently saying “Someday I’ll get my own bacon brand.” The video got over 400,000 views.

“I went viral for I think three or four days and I was on the most views on YouTube,” explains Holland. “That was pretty cool for me, to see when I look on YouTube there my face is.” How did it make him feel, I ask? “It makes you feel good inside. One day I come home from school and I was mad, and I can tell you it just made me feel really good inside to see that [the video] was pretty much one of the top in basically the world.”

Despite enjoying the attention, Holland has no aspirations to be a TV or internet star again. He is part of an organisation called the Future Farmers of America (FFA), and plans to go to his local community college before becoming a welder. “There’s a few know-it-alls in the community,” he says, “They just say it’s crazy how you went and did all that and now you’re not going on in the movie field. That’s not something I’m really interested in.”

Yet although Holland says it’s “time to move on a little bit”, he also admits he would be open to any offers. “A lot of people say well why don’t you just get up with a bacon company and do commercials or something… I mean I wouldn’t mind doing that if they came and asked me.” After Wife Swap, a company did come and film a pilot for Holland’s own show, but it never amounted to anything. “I mean you'd be lucky to get on TV once in your whole life and I feel like I really enjoyed it when I was up there,” he says when I ask if this was disappointing.

All of this means that Holland hasn’t made much money from his viral fame. Unlike other memes I’ve spoken to, he hasn’t earned hundreds of thousands of dollars. “I believe I got 150 bucks,” he says of his “Update” YouTube video, “All the other stuff like the ‘Bacon is good for me’ songs, they’ve [the creators] made $75,000 and that’s a lot of money putting away."

“I mean it don’t annoy me because it ain’t my fault; it’s nobody’s fault in the situation. They found a way around the system,” he says when I ask if he’s annoyed at others’ making money at his expense.

Nowadays, Holland is still recognised when he is out and about, and says he has signed over one thousand autographs in his life (once he was wary of a neighbourhood policeman who was asking him to sign a parking ticket, before he realised he simply wanted an autograph). “I don’t get sick of it, but of course you’ve got a few people that want to be rude about what you’re doing.

“I really don’t care, I’m a really upbeat kind of person. If there's somebody in a computer screen telling me something that means nothing, you know?”

For Holland, then, the good outweighs the bad. Apart from being asked after by Lucy Hale, his favourite thing about going viral is that he gets to make people laugh. “If I can go up to somebody and make their day and make them smile, I feel like I’ve done a great thing,” he says.

I end the interview with Holland like I end all of my interviews with memes: by asking him if there’s anything he would like to say – a message he’d like to get out there, or a misconception he’d like to clear up – now that he has the chance.

“Oh nothing I've got to say,” he begins, “except bacon is still good for me.”

 “Living the Meme” is a series of articles exploring what happens to people after they go viral. Check out the previous articles here.

To suggest an interviewee for Living the Meme, contact Amelia on Twitter.

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.