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Why the real history of the Peace of Westphalia in 17th-century Europe offers a model for bringing stability to the Middle East.
European integration was designed to contain Berlin’s power – instead, it has increased it.
The centenary of the First World War has reopened old wounds. Yet Germany and Britain once enjoyed a special relationship – as when they defeated Napoleon at Waterloo – and they could do so again.
Europe should not underestimate the Russian threat, argues historian and professor of international relations Brendan Simms. We must show how seriously we take Putin’s assault on Ukraine by working towards unification and moral and military rearmament.