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By the turn of the millennium, it seemed that the Führer and Nazism had not just been comprehensively defeated but safely buried. But now, as globalisation fragments and national populists rise, we are not so sure.
Five hundred years ago a political and religious crisis tore Europe apart. Now the continent is entering another age of schism.
The continent’s old crises have not been resolved.
The crucial variable is not British power but the weakness of Europe.
Under Trump, the United States could turn away from Europe, leaving the continent exposed and vulnerable. So is it the destiny of the UK alone to stand for collective defence, free trade and fair play in a turbulent age?
It would be wrong to hope that either domestic or international checks and balances will constrain Trump abroad. Geopolitically, the result would be unpredictable – at best.
The prospect of the break-up of Spain poses yet another challenge to Europe.
Why the real history of the Peace of Westphalia in 17th-century Europe offers a model for bringing stability to the Middle East.
European integration was designed to contain Berlin’s power – instead, it has increased it.
The centenary of the First World War has reopened old wounds. Yet Germany and Britain once enjoyed a special relationship – as when they defeated Napoleon at Waterloo – and they could do so again.