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What Britain’s organised criminals think of Brexit

The UK’s narco moguls are yet to join the debate about leaving the EU. 

No one has asked the narcotics industry what it thinks of Brexit. They should. This industry relies on cross border trade and the movement of both people and commodities. Like the banks, the car manufacturers and the supermarkets, drug dealers will be impacted by Brexit.

But the decline of the UK narcotics industry will have a knock-on effect on the mainstream economy. This sector contributes around £10bn to the British economy, and such profits are now included in the nation’s GDP. It also provides regular investment for real estate and banking – the City of London is said to be a favourite with drug money launderers. When combined with prostitution, its 75,000-strong workforce makes it the second largest private employer in the country behind John Lewis.

So far, the UK’s narco moguls have been taciturn on Brexit.

This is, perhaps, to be expected. There is no umbrella-style federation for wholesale distributors of cocaine. The UK gangland’s kingpins keep their presence in the UK economy subterranean. And yet, official reports show that organised mobsters monitor international affairs to exploit geopolitical developments.

Brexit will be no different. Which begs an obvious question: does organised crime favour a hard or soft Brexit? To find a possible answer, I approached Professor Richard Hobbs, a leading international criminologist based at the University of Essex. As someone who has conducted in-depth research of organised criminals, Hobbs has first-hand knowledge of the British underworld.

“The guys who I know who are seriously involved in crime,” says Hobbs. “Talk to them about Brexit, they’re generally right-wing, they’re Little Britainers… and they are complete and utter hard Brexit… They like Ukip. I know some of these old boys and they do measure up to all the stereotypes and they have a picture of the Queen in their cells when they are banged up, as they frequently are.”

You might expect those involved in the UK drugs business to favour a frictionless European market and free movement. But it seems organised crime is far removed from the cosmopolitan criminal capitalists portrayed in the BBC’s McMafia.

McMafia is blown out of proportion”, concurs Hobbs. “For the people involved [in Britain’s illicit markets] they would be shocked and horrified if you told them they are transnational organised criminals. They would laugh in your face”.

Yet the jingoism of the older generation aside, there is no coherent organised crime position on Brexit because the business itself is decentralised and highly fragmented.

“The point is that there is no class of people who are organising,” observes Hobbs. “You’ve not got someone at the top making decisions. It’s not a James Bond [villain], stroking a white cat, making decision about how they’re going to deal with Brexit. Organised crime works on a network basis. But each section is almost separate.”

The ultimate red line for the criminal fraternity is not sovereignty but money. And with money, pragmatism and not ideology reigns: “The way that organised crime works is not the way we are told in the media…It’s very pragmatic – it’s day to day, month by month.”

Pulling out of the single market and creating hard borders will pressurise margins. The criminologist Ann Sergi anticipates the price of drugs will invariably increase which means that narcotics become adulterated with substances likes fentanyl or users may opt for synthetic alternatives. More deaths by overdose is the likely result.

But Hobbs notes that a hard border will not starve the UK’s stoners of trafficked drugs. Brexit or no Brexit, UK borders are susceptible to illegal trafficking: “We are so reliant on containerised traffic but only very few containers are checked. This is not going to change. We haven’t go the manpower.”

And here’s what interesting. If you asked a management consultant to conduct a strategic analysis of Brexit for organised crime, the opportunities would outweigh the costs. In Northern Ireland, as one report by The Economist showed, leaving the customs union will only make the running of contraband between north and south more lucrative. And the limits on legal immigration will create a demand for labour, which immediately creates a market for people trafficking. All helped by the fact the UK police will be more isolated and weaker as a result of Britain leaving Europol.

Mike Marinetto lectures in business ethics at Cardiff University Business School. His research interests include deviant globalisation and illegal markets. Written with thanks to Prof Richard Hobbs.

CREDIT: PETER DAZELEY/PHOTOGRAPHER’S CHOICE
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The overlooked aspect of patient care: why NHS catering needs a revolution

The NHS performs so many miracles every day – in comparison, feeding the sick should be a doddle. 

A friend recently sent me a photo from her hospital bed – not of her newborn baby, sadly, but her dinner. “Pls come and revolutionise the NHS” the accompanying text read, along with a plaintive image of some praying hands. A second arrived the next morning: “Breakfast: cereal, toast or porridge. I asked for porridge. She said porridge would be ‘later’. Never arrived. (sad face).”

Contrast this with the glee with which another friend showed me his menu at a Marie Curie hospice a few weeks later. He seemed to have ticked every box on it, and had written underneath his order for syrup sponge and custard: “extra custard please”. It wasn’t fancy, but freshly cooked, comforting food that residents looked forward to – “like school dinners”, he sighed, “but nice”.

To be fair, though budgets vary significantly between hospital trusts, a reliable estimate suggests £3.45 per patient per day as an average – only slightly more than in Her Majesty’s prisons, though unlike in prisons or schools, there is no legally enforceable set of minimum standards for hospital catering. As Prue Leith writes in the foreword to a 2017 report by the Campaign for Better Hospital Food, “this means hospital food is uniquely vulnerable to a race to the bottom in terms of food quality, and patient care”.

Plate after plate of disappointment is not only demoralising for people who may already be at a low ebb, but overlooks the part food has to play in the recovery process. Balanced, appetising meals are vital to help weaker patients build up strength during their stay, especially as figures released in February suggest the number of hospital deaths from malnutrition is on the rise. According to Department of Health findings last year, 48 per cent of English hospitals failed to comply with food standards intended to be legally binding, with only half screening every admission for malnutrition.

The Campaign for Better Hospital Food’s report, meanwhile, revealed that only 42 per cent of the London hospitals that responded to its survey cooked fresh food for children – even though the largest single cause of admissions in five-to-nine-year-olds is tooth extraction. Less than a third of respondents cooked fresh food for adults.

Once the means to produce fresh meals are in place, they can save trusts money by allowing kitchens to buy ingredients seasonally, when they are cheaper. Michelin-starred chef Phil Howard, recently tasked by the Love British Food organisation to cook their annual lunch on an NHS budget, explained that this, along with using cheaper cuts and pushing vegetables centre stage, allowed him to produce three courses rather than the two he’d been asked for. Delicious they were, too.

Andy Jones, a chef and former chair of the Hospital Caterers Association, who was there championing British food in the NHS, told me the same principles applied in real healthcare environments: Nottingham City Hospital, which prepares meals from scratch, saves £6m annually by buying fresh local ingredients – “I know with more doing, and voices like my small one shouting out, we will see real sea change.”

Unusually, it’s less a question of money than approach. Serving great hospital food takes a kitchen, skilled cooks and quality ingredients. But getting every hospital to this point requires universal legal quality standards, like those already in place in schools, that are independently monitored.

Nutrition should be taken as seriously as any other aspect of care. The NHS performs so many miracles every day – in comparison, feeding the sick should be a doddle. 

Felicity Cloake is the New Statesman’s food columnist. Her latest book is The A-Z of Eating: a Flavour Map for Adventurous Cooks.

This article first appeared in the 18 April 2018 issue of the New Statesman, Enoch Powell’s revenge