8 May 1954: A boy chats with a local fisherman repairing fishing lines at Catalan Bay, a village on the eastern side of Gibraltar, two days before the Queen’s first official visit and amid tensions with Spain (Getty Images)
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If you don’t write your own stories, others will

The Gibraltarian novelist M G Sanchez has been writing tales of life on the Rock for the past two decades. Here he explains why he wants to give the people of the territory their voice back

My story starts back in 1998 inside the microfilm department at Leeds University’s Brotherton Library. I was halfway through a PhD in English literature (focusing on representations of foreignness in early modern propaganda), and was regularly trawling through the library’s microfilm holdings for images of obscure pamphlets and broadsides.

It was a pretty bleak task, but there was an unexpected perk: while spinning my way manually through those seemingly endless reels, I’d frequently stumble upon 18th century treatises about my native Gibraltar. Many of these texts had grandiloquently archaic titles, such as Gibraltar a Bulwark of Great Britain, or The propriety of retaining Gibraltar impartially considered. It struck me that they spoke a great deal about Gibraltar’s flora and fauna, the state of its military fortifications and other related subjects, but not about the inhabitants themselves.

My curiosity piqued, I rapidly developed an interest in the subject, which led me to search for literary representations of Gibraltar in more recent times. In doing so, I discovered that Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Thackeray, Sir Walter Scott, Benjamin Disraeli and other luminaries had all visited the Rock and written extensively about it. By this time, too, there was a growing awareness among writers that there was a sizeable civilian population flourishing alongside the military garrison. Unfortunately, in almost all these texts, the natives are presented as picturesque anthropological curiosities – nameless, faceless, with little personality or human qualities of their own. Here, for example, is what Thackeray wrote about the inhabitants following a short visit to the colony in 1844:

It is a curious sight . . . [all these] people in a hundred different costumes, bustling to and fro under the coarse flare of the lamps; swarthy Moors, in white or crimson robes; dark Spanish smugglers in tufted hats, with gay silk handkerchiefs round their heads; fuddled seamen from men-of-war . . . porters, Galician and Genoese . . . (1)

In the 20th century, of course, things improved substantially. Gibraltarian characters began to crop up in the writings of authors such as John Masters and Barry Perowne (albeit in minor ancillary roles, away from the central position occupied by the British protagonists), and historians such as H W Howes started to take a serious scholarly interest in the ethnic composition of modern-day Gibraltar.

And yet, despite these advancements, there remained a post-imperial tendency to look down on Gibraltar’s inhabitants. We see this trait most strongly in the writings of Anthony Burgess. Burgess spent most of his war years in the British territory, where he taught evening classes for the British Council and the YMCA. Although from a Catholic blue-collar background, he was never comfortable living in Gibraltar and repeatedly expressed his distaste for his fellow working-class residents of the Rock (most of whom are also Catholic). In Burgess’s first novel – the largely autobiographical A Vision of Battlements (1965) – the narrator, Richard Ennis, complains about the colony’s cultural aridity and continually uses such terms as “ape-like” and “simian” to describe the local population. If there was any doubt at the time that these were Burgess’s own views, it was quickly dispelled on 9 November 1966, when the writer published an article in the Manchester Guardian, poking fun at the Rock’s “biscuit-complexioned bobbies” and mocking the Gibraltarian penchant for singing “God Save the Queen”. (2)

I must have read Burgess’s Vision towards the end of 1999. Obviously it saddened me to think that Gibraltarians were receiving such “short shrift” from the literary world, but I still had no plans to start writing Gibraltarian fiction. What, then, made me change my mind?

I think the final trigger was the raft of stories that appeared in both the British and the Spanish press in the early 2000s, when the British government fleetingly considered discussing the territory’s sovereignty with its Spanish counterpart. Gibraltar seemed to be permanently in the news during those tense and heady years, and I kept encountering all kinds of manifest absurdities in the newspapers. That Gibraltarians were raising “two fingers to the wishes of the British majority” and needed to be “told what was good” for us. (3) That we were just a bunch of expats, whom one journalist described as “taxdodgers who [had] moved to the offshore haven to pay less dues on investments, pick up their UK state pensions, vote Tory every four years, and brag about how special the place is because they use sterling, have red phone boxes . . . A sort of EastEnders-on-Med.”(4) And all this was in the British press. In the Spanish media, needless to say, things were (and have always been) much worse. Traitors, smugglers, money launderers, piratas (pirates), land-grabbing settlers – these are just a few of the colourful epithets that have been launched against us over the years via television, radio and the printed media.

It is against this context of misinformation and deliberate obfuscation that I finally took the plunge and started writing about my native land. From the beginning my aim was very clear: I wanted to present a Gibraltar that felt more real and more tangible than the “contested territory” cliché that readers so often encounter in newspaper editorials. I also wanted to demolish some of the more outlandish myths that have been spread about us: for instance, that we have no real roots of our own, and can therefore be reabsorbed back into Spain at any given moment.

This is simply fabrication. Most modern Gibraltarian families can trace their ancestral origins on the Rock back to the late 18th century, when large numbers of Genoese, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish and British immigrants came to the military base looking for employment. My own family is a case in point. My paternal great-great-great-great-greatgrandfather was a man named Juaquin Sanchez, who arrived at Gibraltar in 1805. Since then, eight generations of Sanchezes have been born on the Rock under British rule. On my mother’s side, our connection to the place extends even further. The first Whitelock (her maiden name), a Yorkshireman, arrived here in the mid-1780s.

Yet my writing is not simply about correcting historical untruths or exaggerations. It is also about giving Gibraltarians a linguistic and cultural space for themselves – one that offers a little more scope than the usual thirty or forty seconds allotted to them during brief news broadcasts in the UK. I want people to know what makes Gibraltarians tick, what it is like to live on a three-mile chunk of limestone rock, and how special our British-Gibraltarian identity is. I want them to know about the smell of Gibraltar’s dusty cobbled streets, about the sense of history that oozes out of its venerably ancient stones.

Long ago, you see, I came to a simple realisation. And that is that if we don’t start writing about ourselves, we run the risk of being presented to the world solely through the prism of others’ perceptions. Or, to paraphrase the words of the great Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe: “If you don’t write your own stories, others will write them for you.”

M G Sanchez is a Gibraltarian writer based in Tokyo. His latest novel, “Solitude House”, was published in January

1) William Makepeace Thackeray, “Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo” (1846)
2) Anthony Burgess, “Rock of ages”
3) Peter Preston, “The people of the Rock must be told what’s good for them”, Guardian (25 March 2002)
4) Brian Reade, “Go ape on the Rock”, Daily Mirror (7 February 2002)

Photo: Getty
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Looking to the future

In our last regular article on Gibraltar for a while, Gibraltar Chronicle editor Brian Reyes looks to the economic and political outlook for the short and medium term.

At the beginning of March, over 150 members of the local business community gathered in the World Trade Center construction site for a ‘topping out’ ceremony. As the last beam was placed on the structure, guests heard speeches about Gibraltar’s resilient economy, its potential for international growth and the need to offer global businesses the necessary working environment to remain competitive.

The EU referendum and the prospect of a so-called Brexit are dominating the headlines, and much of the coverage is gloomy. But in the background, Gibraltar’s private sector continues to drive projects which, in the long term, will help attract international investors to the Rock.

Earlier that same day, Gibraltar’s Development and Planning Commission heard submissions from well-known British architect Jonathan Manser, who leads the design team behind Eurocity, another major development that has its eye on Gibraltar and a prosperous future.

There are other schemes too, some still on the drawing board, some already under way. The MidTown Development, a mix of offices and top-end flats, is funded by a local consortium on a prime site in the heart of town. On the east of the Rock, the ambitious Bluewater project promises a mix of luxury and affordable homes alongside a marina. There are plans too for a former Ministry of Defence site named after Admiral Rooke, while in the Old Town, developers and individual home owners are breathing life into this run down but charming warren of steep, narrow alleyways.

Elsewhere, work is progressing on key infrastructure that will be essential for Gibraltar’s future, in or out of the EU.

Experts are finalising the environmental impact assessment for a facility that will store liquefied natural gas for Gibraltar’s new power station, already under construction. Work should resume too on the airport tunnel project, vital to freeing up Gibraltar’s clogged roads. A new sewage treatment plant, although still some way off, is also in the pipeline, a critical and long-overdue element of Gibraltar’s infrastructure.

There are new attractions for tourists - the opening of the Upper Rock rope bridge and sky platform is eagerly awaited by locals too - and important developments in culture and education, where the University of Gibraltar is building strong academic links across the community and beyond.

And against the background of uncertainty over the UK’s - and by extension Gibraltar’s - membership of the EU, the Gibraltar Government is leaving nothing to chance. A team of economists is analysing the different possible permutations of membership of the EU, EFTA or the EEA, including the potential effects on the Rock’s export economy of membership of the Common Customs Union. 

Despite the combative nature of Gibraltarian politics, there is unity on this question. Both the Gibraltar Government of Gibraltar and the Opposition agree that the UK and Gibraltar should remain in the EU and that Brexit could undermine the Rock’s economic model, creating uncertainty that Spain will undoubtedly seek to exploit. They add that the UK must factor Gibraltar into any post-Brexit negotiation with the EU.

Gibraltar’s long-term economic future will also be placed under scrutiny locally this year by the 2025 Committee, which brings together the public and private sectors and unions to draw up 10-year strategies for the different sectors of the economy, identifying challenges and opportunities in areas as diverse as e-gaming and shipping. A key element of this will be to find new opportunities for business in emerging markets in Asia, the Americas, the Middle East and Africa.

In parallel, a cross-party select committee of the Gibraltar Parliament will analyse various aspects of the 2006 Constitution ahead of a constitutional conference with the United Kingdom on a date yet to be determined. Along with the UK’s referendum on EU membership, the constitutional review will dominate much of parliamentary and political activity during 2016 and likely into 2017. If any changes are proposed as a result of the review, they will first have to be put to a referendum before they can be adopted.

Gibraltar is keeping a wary eye too on Spain, which has yet to swear in a government following an inconclusive general election last December. The future of cross-border relations will depend not just on whether the UK remains within the EU, but on the outcome of the post-election wrangling in Spain.

But even as Spanish politicians try to hammer out a coalition pact in a bid to avoid a return to the polls in June, there is grassroots contact across the border.

The Cross Frontier Group, which brings together business and union interests from Gibraltar and the Campo de Gibraltar, is forging ahead with a proposal to access EU funding for cross-border initiatives. Separately, the government continues to maintain contact with Spanish politicians ranging from PSOE senators to the mayor of La Linea, Juan Franco.

The hope is that, having cleared the EU referendum hurdle, Gibraltar will be able to develop positive dialogue with Spain, irrespective of who is in government. There is much to be gained through practical cooperation in areas as diverse as commerce, culture and sport.

There is, inevitably, a degree of caution. Spain’s acting Foreign Minister, José Manuel García-Margallo, has signalled that if Britain left the EU - and if his party remained in power - he would seek to revive the joint sovereignty proposal robustly rejected by Gibraltar in 2002. 

It would be a move doomed to failure because Gibraltar will have nothing to do with such a a proposal, and neither will the UK. Their shared view is that nothing can be decided on Gibraltar’s future without the agreement of the Gibraltarians.

When he was sworn in as Gibraltar’s new Governor last January, Lieutenant General Edward Davis reaffirmed the UK’s double-lock commitment to the people of Gibraltar, underscoring their inalienable right to self-determination and the UK’s commitment to secure their consent in all matters that pertain to the sovereignty of Gibraltar.  

In doing so, he was reflecting the words of one of his predecessors, General Sir William Jackson.

“Gibraltar is neither Spain’s to claim nor Britain’s to give,” Sir William wrote, in a sentence that resonates to this day and sums up the situation succinctly.

“It is the rock of the Gibraltarians.”

This will be the last item on the New Statesman’s Gibraltar hub for at least a while. We’ve thoroughly enjoyed bringing you insights and hopefully greater understanding of the issues affecting the Rock as well as its politics, culture, geology and a great deal else. We would like to thank our sponsors the Gibraltar government, our many writers and above all our readers.

Charlotte Simmonds, editor, March 2014-March 2015

Guy Clapperton, editor March 2015-March 2016

Brian Reyes is the editor of the Gibraltar Chronicle.