History bites back Francis Fukuyama believes the key to making failing states successful is to remodel them on western lines. Not so, says John Gray. It is through reforms consistent with their own traditions that countries such as China and Russia hav
05 July 2004
A prophet whose beliefs have been proved as completely false as Francis Fukuyama's faces something of a dilemma. Does...
Beyond reasonable doubt. Nostalgia for Enlightenment values such as rationality and progress has become a rallying cry for sections of both right and left. But it was in the name of these principles that some of the worst crimes of the 20th century were c
31 May 2004
In an oddly predictable twist, the Enlightenment has become a rallying point for the right. In former times, the right...
26 April 2004
The announcement by Spain's new prime minister, Jose Luis RodrIguez Zapatero, that Spanish troops will be withdrawn...
09 February 2004
In Kafka's story "A Report to an Academy", an ape called Red Peter delivers a lecture to a learned society in which he...
02 February 2004
Harold Shipman hasn't quite made it as an icon of evil. The nondescript doctor who murdered dozens, maybe hundreds, of...
15 December 2003
Recalling a congress of communist writers that he attended in the 1930s, Arthur Koestler described how a simple...
10 November 2003
Francis Bacon once remarked that he voted for the right because it makes the best of a bad job. Like many of the...
The end of endism. Terry Eagleton (left) has decided that cultural theory is passe. He is angry that most of its practitioners have renounced Marxism. But his arguments are both misguided and outmoded, writes John Gray
13 October 2003
Fashion is as much a feature of life in the academy as it is in millinery, and it is nowhere more evident than in the...
06 October 2003
Tony Blair will never make a mark on history comparable to that left by Margaret Thatcher. Setting out to devise a...
08 September 2003
The crowds milling gently around Charing Cross Station when the power failed did not look too worried. Many seemed to...
The search for meaning. J G Ballard's vision of the world is unsurpassed in its clairvoyant exactitude. His latest despatch from the near future is as bleak and beautiful as ever, writes John Gray
08 September 2003
''The city was a vast and stationary carousel, forever boarded by millions of would-be passengers who took their seats...
NS Essay - 'Bush and Blair deceived us about the reasons for going to war, but they deceived themselves about its impact on Iraq'
04 August 2003
Many who opposed the war in Iraq now demand that the country be placed under international administration. They believe...
14 July 2003
Chance led E O Wilson to the studies that made him one of the greatest scientific thinkers of our age. Born in 1929, he...
Beyond belief. Al-Qaeda's apocalyptic brand of religion runs counter to the secular myths of the west. As a result, we fail to understand its essential modernity, argues John Gray
14 July 2003
With politicians and the media working us all into a panic about the threat of global terror, it is worth remembering...
An encounter with evil. Patricia Highsmith was fascinated by the unnoticed amorality of ordinary people. While this led to a troubled life, it was the source of her novels' unsettling power. By John Gray
30 June 2003
In 1942, Patricia Highsmith wrote in her diary: "The abnormal point of view is always the best for depicting 20th-...