What mooncakes in China can tell you about corruption and the environment

The Chinese tradition of giving away mooncakes in mid-autumn is surprisingly revealing.

Yesterday was China’s Mid-Autumn festival, a national holiday in the country that is marked with the giving away and eating of mooncakes. The mooncake tradition offers interesting insights into two trends affecting China’s economy at present: corruption and the environment.

The trial of Bo Xilai on charges of embezzlement, corruption and abuse of power has highlighted a broader malaise within China’s political establishment. His is the most high-profile corruption case, but one local government official nicknamed ‘Mr Watch’ was sentenced to 14 years in jail earlier this month after bloggers noticed the mismatch between his official salary and his impressive watch collection. Concerned at the rising public outrage, the government has attempted to clamp down on corruption and as the BBC notes, this is having an impact on mooncake sales.

Whereas in previous years deluxe boxes of mooncakes made with shark’s fin, bird’s nest, abalone or even gold or silver have been purchased by those keen to buy favours, this year mooncake sales are down, with shoppers opting for more modest mooncakes.

Another big challenge facing China is environmental damage and pollution. In January this year the air pollution in Beijing reached 40 times the limit the World Health Organisation deems safe. The World Bank estimates that environmental degradation is costing China 9% of its GDP, dragging down growth. Faced with public discontent, the Chinese government has decided to take action. This week it announced it would publish a list of the top 10 worst and best cities for air pollution each month.

A clampdown on political corruption could also have a surprisingly large impact on the environment. According to The Atlantic, the elaborate packaging on mooncakes accounts for one third of China’s waste a year, or 40 million tonnes. If this year’s anti-corruption drive really does result in a decrease in sales of elaborately wrapped mooncakes, this could have a considerable impact on the country’s overall waste production.

Should the Chinese government succeed in making long-term changes to China's mooncake eating habits, this would be a powerful indicator of its ongoing political might. No one likes making concessions when it comes to festive traditions.

A traditional Chinese 'mooncake' on sale at a busy outlet in Hong Kong. Photo: Getty

Sophie McBain is a freelance writer based in Cairo. She was previously an assistant editor at the New Statesman.

Ukip's Nigel Farage and Paul Nuttall. Photo: Getty
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Is the general election 2017 the end of Ukip?

Ukip led the way to Brexit, but now the party is on less than 10 per cent in the polls. 

Ukip could be finished. Ukip has only ever had two MPs, but it held an outside influence on politics: without it, we’d probably never have had the EU referendum. But Brexit has turned Ukip into a single-issue party without an issue. Ukip’s sole remaining MP, Douglas Carswell, left the party in March 2017, and told Sky News’ Adam Boulton that there was “no point” to the party anymore. 

Not everyone in Ukip has given up, though: Nigel Farage told Peston on Sunday that Ukip “will survive”, and current leader Paul Nuttall will be contesting a seat this year. But Ukip is standing in fewer constituencies than last time thanks to a shortage of both money and people. Who benefits if Ukip is finished? It’s likely to be the Tories. 

Is Ukip finished? 

What are Ukip's poll ratings?

Ukip’s poll ratings peaked in June 2016 at 16 per cent. Since the leave campaign’s success, that has steadily declined so that Ukip is going into the 2017 general election on 4 per cent, according to the latest polls. If the polls can be trusted, that’s a serious collapse.

Can Ukip get anymore MPs?

In the 2015 general election Ukip contested nearly every seat and got 13 per cent of the vote, making it the third biggest party (although is only returned one MP). Now Ukip is reportedly struggling to find candidates and could stand in as few as 100 seats. Ukip leader Paul Nuttall will stand in Boston and Skegness, but both ex-leader Nigel Farage and donor Arron Banks have ruled themselves out of running this time.

How many members does Ukip have?

Ukip’s membership declined from 45,994 at the 2015 general election to 39,000 in 2016. That’s a worrying sign for any political party, which relies on grassroots memberships to put in the campaigning legwork.

What does Ukip's decline mean for Labour and the Conservatives? 

The rise of Ukip took votes from both the Conservatives and Labour, with a nationalist message that appealed to disaffected voters from both right and left. But the decline of Ukip only seems to be helping the Conservatives. Stephen Bush has written about how in Wales voting Ukip seems to have been a gateway drug for traditional Labour voters who are now backing the mainstream right; so the voters Ukip took from the Conservatives are reverting to the Conservatives, and the ones they took from Labour are transferring to the Conservatives too.

Ukip might be finished as an electoral force, but its influence on the rest of British politics will be felt for many years yet. 

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