In 2011, Rami Habib, a 43-year-old doctor from Leicester, flew to Syria. Since then, he has watched the revolution against Bashar al-Assad fall apart – but he won’t give up.
In Damascus, the war seems to have receded, and Bashar al-Assad looks more comfortable than ever.
The American political scientist and author once predicted that liberal democracy had won the battle of ideas. Now he says political Islam is not a serious threat to the west and we should not intervene in Iraq.
Jemima Khan writes from Jordan on the Syrian refugee crisis.
On 16 September, the northern Syrian town of Kobane came under siege. Since then, reports state that more than 150,000 refugees have flooded into Turkey.
Will a vote on action in Syria be next?
The PM believes that there is "no legal barrier" to action, but wants to "proceed on the basis of consensus".
The US risks amplifying the message that IS and similar groups have been trying to spread for years.
The war in Syria is made of several smaller wars that sometimes run in parallel and sometimes cross over, like railway junctions on the express to hell.
The Islamic State video appears to show the killing of a third Western hostage, aid worker David Haines, and ends with the warning that another British person will be next.