An Apple iPad with Twitter's native app. Photo: Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images
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Twitter's taking away your control over what tweets you choose to see

A subtle change in how Twitter's feed works will make some people very angry, but most people probably won't even notice.

Twitter users will this week notice a strange new thing happening to their timelines - it's not theirs any more. Tweets from people they don't follow, and who the people they follow haven't chosen to retweet, are now appearing in timelines under the guise of being "relevant and interesting".

Here's how Twitter is now describing itself, on its "what's a Twitter timeline?" about page:

When you sign in to Twitter, you'll land on your home timeline.

  • Your home timeline displays a stream of Tweets from accounts you have chosen to follow on Twitter.
  • Additionally, when we identify a Tweet, an account to follow, or other content that's popular or relevant, we may add it to your timeline. This means you will sometimes see Tweets from accounts you don't follow. We select each Tweet using a variety of signals, including how popular it is and how people in your network are interacting with it. Our goal is to make your home timeline even more relevant and interesting.

It doesn't take long to find how much users are hating this change:

It's pretty obvious why this is so annoying - favourites function in a very different way to retweets. Here's a dumb Buzzfeed list of "17 Types of Twitter Fave" - ignore some of the sillier ones like the accidental self-fave, and it's still clear there's a lot a favourite can mean. I use it for bookmarking stuff for later that I then might want to retweet if I think it's worth it, but there are plenty of other times users won't want a favourite to be automatically pumped into their followers' timelines. They might fave a job advert, for example, or a tweet critical of someone they know to remind themselves of it even if they disagree. Now, a pseudo-private clearing house for public activity is itself also public.

However, the reason for the change is simple: Twitter will make more money if it gets more people tweeting, and people are more likely to tweet if they see stuff they can tweet about.

At the moment there's a clear difference between the types of service that Twitter and Facebook offer: the former's is comprehensive, while the latter's is curatorial. Facebook's news feed did, once upon a time, list nothing more than the activity of a user's friends - that's things like wall posts, shared links, adding new friends, that sort of thing - but very quickly began using algorithmic guesses to insert extra stuff that it thought was relevant. The news feed these days is less like a place to get updates from friends, and more a streak of vomit - you know that there are probably some quite nice things that were ingested in the beginning, but the recommendations that came back up range were not particularly welcome.

A good illustration of this is Mat Honan's Wired piece where he liked everything he saw on Facebook for two days. The result was that it not only quickly become completely unusable, pumping out links to far-right political sites and clickbait listicles that crowded out any of his friends' activities, but he also ruined Facebook for everyone who was friends with him - the algorithms, after all, assume that word-of-mouth is the best recommendation engine that exists, and so treats the things your friends like as things you will likely also like. Your ability to control what Facebook shows you is negligible.

Twitter, by contrast, has kept this kind of manipulation to a minimum. Following someone on Twitter means that every tweet they make will appear in the timeline, as it happens. The people who really love Twitter tend to also dislike Facebook for this reason. Trying to follow world events in real-time is easier with a platform that treats every voice the same, and which doesn't let the actions of one user influence the timeline of another.

Except, of course, it does. The retweet function - where a user can republish a tweet for all of their followers as if they themselves follow the retweeted account - does allow some cross-contamination, and was introduced in 2009 as a more "natural" version of the manual method which had organically emerged when Twitter first launched. People hated it at first, too, for allowing "strangers in my stream". Then there are promoted tweets, too - anyone can pay to have their tweet show up in the timelines of strangers. People hated them too (they still hate them), but, since it was obvious Twitter would have to find a way to make money to support its free service, these tweets have become seen as a necessary evil.

There's a problem that every social network has to struggle with, and Twitter is no exception: how much to poke users into doing stuff they otherwise might not. Most people who use Twitter - we're talking millions of users - sign up, follow a few friends and relatives and a couple of celebrities, and then don't particularly get involved any more than that. This is the effect of respecting the user's ability to curate their own timeline. They act like bubbles, floating in isolation past each other while never mixing.

That's not good enough for a business like Twitter, which has been struggling to match the growth in users and revenues that it predicted in its IPO in November last year. The six months from December to July saw its stock fall in value by 47 per cent, when it then rebounded after an encouraging uptick in user growth and a reduction in losses. In large part this new confidence from investors is based on the idea that somehow, in the future, Twitter will crack a way of making money - just as Facebook has. That's why Twitter keeps experimenting, from making it easier to embed tweets in other websites to introducing all kinds of themed content for big events like the World Cup (remember the flags?). 

And, fundamentally, that's why it makes business sense to turn the favourite function on Twitter into a kind of "I'm Feeling Lucky" retweet, or to let users see popular tweets from the people who the people they follow follow. It needs to keep its investors happy by converting those millions of registered users into active users, defined as those who log on at least once a month. Currently growth in that number is around six per cent, which isn't fast enough. More promising, instead, is to figure out how to convince the non-active users to become more "engaged". 85 per cent of those who stop using Twitter claim it's because they had less than 30 followers, and 76 per cent of people say that they found Twitter's lack of filtering and sorting functions offputting. Those are the kinds of figures that demand changes to a platform's functionality.

Those users who use third-party apps or clients like Tweetdeck or Tweetbot to check Twitter won't see this change - and it's notable that promoted tweets don't appear in those apps either. (There's no word yet from Twitter if the new favourite/retweet hybrid will appear in every iteration of the timeline, or if power users will be able to opt out indefinitely this way.) It's tempting, then, to dismiss the most vociferous critics of the change as those who are merely annoyed by any change at all - it worked just fine before, after all - and that's not an unfair criticism. It's not a policy change that is arguably more symbolically important for taking away some user choice than it is functionally.

However, Twitter's growing pains aren't limited just to its timelines. The question of what content should be permissible in tweets has always been an issue, and it is becoming increasingly more worrisome as it becomes clear that online harrassment and bullying are depressingly suited to the medium. Twitter's introduction of auto-previewed images to timelines was roundly-criticised for making shocking and disturbing images harder to avoid, and the process for reporting abusive behaviour is notoriously long-winded and complex - much more so than for spammers. In the light of today's news that an American photojournalist, James Foley, has been murdered by Isis militants, the Twitter CEO Dick Costolo tweeted that any accounts actively sharing videos or pictures of "this graphic imagery" would be banned, yet such enthusiastic crackdowns like this are often applied inconsistently.

The overall impression is that Twitter wants to be a space where users feel they can trust the links that they see selling stuff, and know that they won't get a virus from clicking on them. Or, it's an online space where abusive and shocking behaviour is only dealt with when it affects a prominent celebrity or public figure whose public egress from Twitter might affect user trust - as with Robin Williams' daughter Zelda, who was driven from Twitter by behaviour which thousands of other women experience daily. This doesn't make it any less abhorrent, but it is disheartening that it takes an example so impossible to ignore for something to be done about the problemIn that sense, it's perhaps wise to be wary of yet more changes to Twitter which make it harder, not easier, for users to define what they experience online.

Ian Steadman is a staff science and technology writer at the New Statesman. He is on Twitter as @iansteadman.

Roosh V via YouTube
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Men's rights activist Roosh V isn't just a sexist: he hates the modern world

Roosh and his community have seen that cultural change is chipping away at their privilege, and they're having none of it. 

When an activist known as Roosh V organised 165 “meet-ups” for like-minded men in 43 countries for this Saturday, the backlash was instantaneous. Signatures on petitions to keep Roosh away (even from countries where he wasn't planning to visit) stretched into the thousands. Police in many of the cities where meet-ups were planned said they would be keeping an eye on the events. Counter-protests were organised. And so today, Roosh announced that the meetings would be cancelled, since he could “no longer guarantee the safety or privacy of the men who want to attend”.

Roosh V is a prominent member of the section of the internet known as the "manosphere": he runs popular websites including Return of Kings and his own blog, and began his career by writing guide books about how to pick up women in countries from Poland (“What to do when a Polish guy inevitably tries to cockblock you”) to Colombia (including “an explanation into the Colombian prepago female (gold digger)").

Yet as demonstrated in a recent Reggie Yates documentary programme about men's rights activists, 36-year-old Roosh seems a lot more interested in his own theories about society than in handing out pick-up tips. "This is starting to sound like a conspiracy theory," Yates notes at one point. 

Roosh actually distanced himself from the Men's Rights community, or MRAs (though he arguably does fight for what he sees as men's rights) in 2009, when he argued that the group was filled with men incapable of taking action or improving their "game" with women. He would be more likely to self describe as a pick-up artist, or PUA, though his writing usually focusses on issues beyond simply "how to pick up women". 

While Roosh's views are objectionable and off-the-wall, they’re also subscribed to in full or in part by what may be millions of men around the world. So what does he believe? And how did this alternate worldview develop in the mind of a well-travelled, university-educated American son of immigrants?

Roosh isn't “pro-rape”, but he thinks rape is the fault of its victims

Many headlines this week called the proposed meetings "pro-rape", with evidence taken from a single post entitled “How to Stop Rape” which Roosh wrote in February 2015 (and which he recently claimed was satire). In it, he writes that since “women are not getting raped by violent offenders . . . they are getting raped by men they already know”, then rape (or as Roosh medievally puts it, “violent taking of a woman”) on private property should be made legal. This would, he argues, force women to “take responsibility” for their conduct on dates or while alone with men.

This appeals to a popular trope within the manosphere: that men will be "falsely" accused of rape under progressive rape laws that dictate that drunk women can't give consent, or accused by women who later regret the sexual encounter. The community is particularly aerated about Califiornia’s Yes Means Yes law, which rules that silence or lack of resistence doesn’t mean someone has consented (though consent can still be non-verbal).

Roosh's bizarre “legalise rape” argument is an apt symbol of his general appraoch: it’s a kind of devil’s advocacy, mixed with a form of upside-down rationality. He takes a common complaint among men’s groups and pushes it to an extreme conclusion, to the delight of his fans.

It’s also worth noting that some of Roosh’s pick-up tactics and advice could be seen to encourage rape – it’s probably fairer to call him “pro-rape” on these grounds, rather than his blogpost. In another trope common to the MRA community, he believes women say no in order to play “hard to get”, and that any self-respecting pick-up artist would override "no" up to a certain point. In a two-hour Skype interview with feminist artist Angela Washko, he argues:

“If a girl says no, that's no. But if she's still there and she allows you to touch her again and kiss her again that's not rape. That is not.”

In "When no means yes", a post from 2010, he gives the following "tip": "‘No’ when you try to take off her panties means . . . ‘Don’t give up now!’”

He knows his audience

In some of his writing, or while speaking to certain interviewers, Roosh can seem almost harmless – misguided, yes, but intellectually engaged and cautious about offending. 

In his interview with Washko, the pair manage to agree on the idea that it’s in the economic interests of the world’s richest to force all women to both work and have families, as wages can be lower: “The more people you force into the workforce, the cheaper labor is.”

The fact that women should have the choice to raise children instead of having a career is something both can agree on. 

But elsewhere, Roosh's concerned citizen mask slips. Earlier this week, he told members of his website forum to pool the details of journalists who write mean things about him with the ominous phrase: "We're going after the root of the problem". Elsewhere, he has said he won’t be interviewed by female journalists unless they give him a blowjob, and has stated that, “my default opinion of any girl I meet is worthless dirty whore until proven otherwise”.

This dual personality is something he shares with the comedian Dapper Laughs, who appeared on Newsnight to apologise for his rape joke-heavy comedy and explain that he was satiring men’s sexism, but now tells audiences that at the time he wanted to tell interviewer Emily Maitlis to “get your f***ing gash out!”  

He’s a savvy businessman

Which raises the question: how much of Roosh’s bluster is an act? Roosh must have learned by now that his more incendiary statements earn him attention, and even money through traffic to his sites. Dapper Laughs knows he needs to undercut his earnest, turtlenecked performance on Newsnight to keep earning as a comedian. 

Roosh told Reggie Yates he receives around a million combined hits to his websites every month, but this month, the figure must be far higher. A Vice journalist has pointed out that Roosh boasts about his online metrics on Twitter, and seems to be in competition with fellow controversy-chaser Milo Yiannopoulos. 

Which brings us to another question: did Roosh ever think the meet-ups would go ahead? Was he in fact expecting a media backlash, which would then allow him to show his followers that they are victimised and under attack, just as he's told them?

The whole thing does seem built as a vehicle for media attention: the covert meetings complete with a special code ("Do you know where I can find a pet shop?") which somehow found its way into every mainstream media story about the meetings – including, of course, this one.

Roosh advertised them on public sites, despite the fact that he probably could have contacted many supporters through more private forms of social media and regularly keeps the locations of his own talks a secret. His attempt to smear journalists is playing out in a private forum – strange that he couldn't use similar channels to arrange Saturday's meetings. 

He thinks the Western world is on the verge of a “cultural collapse”

Roosh claims that his science background taught him how, as he tells Washko, “to know what is a lie . . . when someone is full of shit I can tell because they’re just using what? Emotion.”

Travelling, meanwhile, has exposed him "to different ideas, belief systems than other people – I have more data and background in my mind that allows me to reach conclusions that are more accurate”.

This, in turn, prompts this surreal exchange:

Image: Angela Washko.

This defence – of science and worldliness, in the face of closed-minded emotion on the part of feminists – is important to Roosh precisely because his worldview actually seems to rely on an emotional, kneejerk hatred of change. 

Beyond the more typical MRA beliefs, Roosh has a comprehensive argument for how feminism and other liberal, progressive attitudes are about to ruin the modern world. In a document titled “Cultural collapse theory” he outlines a world where women earn “25 per cent more than women on average”, children are taught to “respect all religions but that of their ancestors”, and the reproductive rate falls because women have careers.

Here is the progression of a “cultural collapse”:

This, of course, is a dressed-up version of the familiar dystopia imagined by those who think liberal ideas and cultural change are driving us to disaster. In this context, Roosh’s ideas about women begin to look more like a refusal to get on board with the modern world: the way he sees women would have been very familiar a few centuries ago.

His hatred also extends to other social groups who have recently gained privilege, including transgender people (“If you are genetically a man, but you all of a sudden have this need to dress up like a girl . . . you should seek help"), gay people ("they're trying to encroach on what normal humanity is”), and stay-at-home fathers (“I mean if you ever see me pushing a stroller or changing a diaper, something is wrong. I must be on drugs"). 

The best proof of Roosh’s affection for the past is his opinion on where it all went wrong: I’m pretty sure giving women the right to vote was the start.”

In one particularly pathetic plea during his interview with Washko, he cries “You can’t even have sexy babes in games anymore!” 

…so any kind of cultural change is bad

When speaking to a group of London men in Reggie Yates’ documentary, Roosh emphasises the idea that "women and gays are seen as superior to straight men", and that straight men are, effectively, an oppressed group. “Men are not allowed to speak the views that I am speaking,” he tells his rapt audience. The cancelled meetings, it seems, function as proof of this. 

Yates may think Roosh is touting a conspiracy theory, but at heart, it may be simpler than that. Roosh’s pseudo-intellectualism can be boiled down to a single point: the modern world is chipping away at his privilege, and he – and his followers – don’t like it at all. Roosh is furious that, in his eyes, the media is “encouraging” children to be gay, asking Washko: “Why is the media all of a sudden in the business of shaping the sexuality of human beings?”

As Washko writes in her transcript, she resists the urge to reply: “But it always has been!” The difference now is that the narrative (if it exists, which I’d argue it doesn’t particularly) just doesn’t favour Roosh’s demographic anymore. As one of Roosh’s fans tells Yates, “We’re losing ground.”

While equality isn’t a zero-sum game, true cultural and political change will require privileged groups to lose some ground – to give up some of that privilege. Behind the long words and cultural theory, Roosh and his followers are the men simply refusing to do so.  

Barbara Speed is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman and a staff writer at CityMetric.