People who don’t forget can still be tricked with false memories

Despite being able to remember minute details from every moment of their lives, the ability to never forget has other costs for some people.

“Time is the thief of memory,” wrote Stephen King in one of his many books. For some people, however, that is not true. They are gifted with what scientists call highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM), which means they can remember in vivid detail every day of their life going back to childhood. But new research shows that even these special people are susceptible to forming false memories, sometimes more than normal people.

The first study of a person, later identified to be Jill Price, with this special ability was published as recently as 2006. Since then the database of HSAM individuals in the US has grown to about 30 people. It includes people like Bob Petrella, who can recall the date he met every one of his friends and acquaintances. Or Brad Williams, who can remember both what he did on any day and what significant world events occurred.

James McGaugh at the University of California Irvine was the author of the 2006 study, and for the past seven years he has been working to understand what makes HSAM individuals so special. A 2012 study showed, for instance, that HSAM individuals have different brain structures. They posses more white matter in areas linked to autobiographical memory. But because there are so few of them “we still don’t know enough to be able to draw robust conclusions”, says Martin Conway, a cognitive psychologist at City University London.

Knowing how HSAM people form memories would be a great leap in our understanding. With graduate student Lawrence Patihis, McGaugh set out to fill that gap. One way to do that would be to test if HSAM individuals are susceptible to false memories. After all, memories are easy to distort. It happens to everyone: the young, the old, the intelligent and the dumb. Now, in a study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Patihis finds that HSAM individuals too can be tricked to possess false memories.

Not so perfect
For the study, Patihis recruited 20 out of the 30 known HSAM individuals in the US. They were matched, by sex and age, with 38 people with normal memory. All of the participants were then given three tests.

In the first test, each participant was shown a series of words that were all supposed to be connected to a “lure word”. So if the lure word was “lamp” then they will be shown words like light, table, shade and stand, but not the word lamp. After they have seen the list, they are asked if they saw the word lamp. People with normal memories got the answer wrong seven out of ten times. HSAM individuals too got it wrong just as much.

The second test was more elaborate. It showed a slideshow of photos depicting a crime. After 40 minutes, they were then shown words describing the crime with misinformation sprinkled in them. Then 20 minutes later they were tested to see how many people believed the misinformation to be true. This time HSAM individuals did worse than normal people. They were 73 percent more prone to false memories. “Maybe HSAM individuals form richer memories through absorption of more information and that is why they are also more susceptible to false ones too,” says Patihis.

Perhaps it is easy to manipulate recent memories. So in the third test Patihis looked to test long-term memory. All participants were asked to recall the September 11 terrorist attacks. They were then given irrelevant facts about that event, one of which was not true (someone captured the footage of United 93 in Pennsylvania). After 15 minutes, all participants were then asked whether they had see such a footage. Like the first test, normal people and HSAM individuals performed almost equally badly on this test.

“This shows that maybe people with superior memories form them just like normal people. Thus, in the process, they are also prone to making the same mistakes,” says Patihis. Equally, they may use a different process of forming superior memories, but one that has same problems as that of the normal process.

There is still contention among experts whether HSAM individuals are “special”. K Anders Ericsson of Florida State University says, "our work has pretty much concluded that differences in memory don’t seem to be the result of innate differences, but more the kinds of skills that are developed." To which McGaugh says, “you’d have to assume that every day they rehearse it ... The probability of these explanations dwindles as you look at the evidence."

Price had admitted that remembering everything meant bad memories were always around to trouble her. It led researchers to believe that such superior memory may come at a cognitive cost of lost abilities, or less happier lives. But research since has shown that not to be the case. HSAM individuals tend to have similar lives to normal people. With the latest study, McGaugh has shown one more task where HSAM individuals are normal. They too may be made to believe that as a kid they were lost in a shopping mall, even if that isn’t true.

This article was originally published at The Conversation. Read the original article.The Conversation

Some people have no need for post-it notes. Photo: Bala Sivakumar/Flickr
Google Allo
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Google Allo: a chat app like WhatsApp – but with only a cursory consideration for your privacy

When will we stop sacrificing security for stickers of muscular bulls wiggling their butts? 

The world already has enough chat apps. When Google’s latest messaging service Allo launched this morning, a cursory glance showed us it had much the same features as Snapchat, WhatsApp, and Facebook Messenger before it. You can doodle on your pictures! Here’s an emoji with heart eyes! Look at this sticker of a bull twerking! Oh-by-the-way-we’re-reading-your-messages-hope-that’s-not-a-problem-bye!

Just like Facebook, Instagram, Skype, and Snapchat, the messages you send on Google Allo are not automatically end-to-end encrypted. This type of encryption – which Whatsapp began using in April – means that only you and the recipient of your message can read it and nobody in between. Messaging apps without end-to-end encryption can store your messages on their servers and access them at any time, as well as hand them over to the government if required by law. The technology academic and author John Naughton has likened it to “sending your most intimate secrets via holiday postcards” and Edward Snowden went as far as too call Google Allo “dangerous”.

But Google has a reason for not using end-to-end encryption (whether it’s a good one or not is up to you). The app includes Google Assistant, a tool which can answer your questions within any chat. In order for this to work, Google naturally needs to access your messages. Its new “Smart Reply” feature also means it reads and analyses your conversations to give you personalised auto-reply suggestions. Despite originally promising that it would only store your chat history for a limited amount of time, Google has now admitted that it will retain the data unless you personally choose to delete it. The app is actively trying to learn as much about you as possible, and then storing the data. 

But while Google Allo doesn’t automatically offer end-to-end encryption, it is receiving praise for the ability to opt in via “Incognito mode”. Once this mode is selected, you have end-to-end encryption on your messages, and you can set them to expire after a certain period of time. Wonderful. Brilliant. Article over. No more worries.

Except by placing the onus on the user to opt in to privacy (rather than opt in to Google Assistant) Google has played a trick that many companies have played before. Amazon recently launched a UK version of Echo, a “constantly listening” smart device that records and stores all of your questions, and gave users the option to mute the machine if they were concerned about privacy. But by its very nature, no one who desires this device is concerned about privacy.

And so too with Google Allo. Anyone worried about Snowden’s warning won’t download it, and those who do download it are unconcerned about, or unaware of, the lack of end-to-end encryption. Even the name, “Incognito mode” makes it sound like something that should be used for shady or saucy goings-on, instead of accepting that, by default, all of your private conversations should stay private.

Which begs the question: why don’t most of us care? Allo’s opt-in encryption is actually a vast improvement on Facebook Messenger’s complete disregard for this privacy measure, and that app has one billion active users. Are we truly so distracted by stickers and emojis that we don’t spare a thought for security? Our general apathy towards personal privacy sets a precedent for a future in which – and really, no tinfoil hats are needed here – none of our conversations are ever private.

You probably don’t care because your conversations are boring (no offence). It doesn’t worry us that the government or the police or big businesses are listening because all we’re talking about is whether to meet the lads in Nando’s at six or six-thirty. But no matter how inane our conversations, we should always protect ourselves from eavesdropping.

This is because, as the way Google search histories are used in court shows, your personal data can easily be misconstrued. If you ever did get in trouble with the police, can you really trust them to understand the private jokes between you and your friends, and not construe malicious meanings in your messages? What if third parties accessed your conversations? Companies already use our social media profiles to target advertisements towards us, but what if they scanned our messages to understand us better? Could your offhand conversation about how sick you’re feeling affect your health insurance claims? Will your message about money trouble prevent you from getting a loan?

These are all hypothetical questions, yes, but they are a path our apathy is driving us down. We’d much rather skip through the Terms and Conditions to get a new flashy feature than really scrutinise the data we’re giving away and how it’s used. Companies know this, which is why they hide behind opt-in features like “Incognito mode” and the “delete chat history” button. They can defend themselves by saying the option is there while simultaneously knowing that most people will never actually use it.

There is no easy way to get the wider world to care about privacy, but thankfully there’s probably no way to get them to care about Allo either. It’s not certain whether the messaging app will fail, but given the success of Google's previous chat apps (Talk or Hangouts, anyone?), it seems likely. Then again, none of those had a sticker of a muscular bull wiggling its butt.

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.