Where does the moon come from?

Whether we’re trying to find out where it came from, or how to siphon off some of its energy, grappling with the moon is harder than it looks.

When the Apollo astronauts brought back pieces of lunar rock, the samples promised to answer the question of the moon’s origin. It’s a question we are still asking.

The “big splash” theory of a gargantuan collision between two planets is the favourite. The idea is that a Mars-sized object hit the young earth, throwing off a load of matter which coalesced to form the moon.

Scientists became convinced that the big splash theory must be correct because it calls for the stuff in the moon to be lighter than the atoms making up earth. Initial analysis of the relative abundance of various forms of atoms (known as isotopes) in the Apollo samples provided supporting evidence.

However, researchers then thought to take account of the effects of a few billion years of bombardment by high-energy subatomic particles called cosmic rays. Because earth is protected from cosmic rays by its magnetic field, these would change the moon’s isotope abundances only and in particular ways. Unfortunately, all this has been a dampener on the big splash theory.

Other theories are available. The moon could simply have formed independently at the same time as the earth, for instance. Or it could have been a passing body that fell into our planet’s gravitational field and got trapped.

Most planetary scientists remain convinced that the big splash is right but to convince themselves and others they have to work out a consistent story. That’s why they gathered to sift through all the evidence at the Royal Society in London on 23 and 24 September.

Despite the lack of consensus, scientific achievements in this area are astonishing. We are narrowing down the timings of events that occurred 4.5 billion years ago. Some of the research that was presented showed that the moon is roughly 100 million years younger than we had thought. This kind of forensic analysis of vaporised rock is an extraordinary feat.

If only our progress in harvesting lunar energy was as extraordinary. Most experts are convinced that there is a way to profit from the moon’s gravitational pull on the oceans, but the devil is in the detail.

The Scottish government recently gave the go-ahead for the Pentland Firth to host Europe’s largest tidal energy project. It is estimated that the Pentland Firth could eventually meet half of Scotland’s electricity needs, but for now engineers are aiming to have 40 per cent of homes in the Scottish Highlands running off lunar power by 2020.

In many ways, it’s a great leap forward. Yet meeting 40 per cent of the needs of one of the UK’s less inhabited regions also seems a little underwhelming. One of the benefits of being a small island is that Britain has copious tidal and wave power at its disposal: enough to meet a fifth of our electricity needs.

Whether we’re trying to find out where it came from, or how to siphon off some of its energy, grappling with the moon is harder than it looks.

A 'Super Moon' rises over Sydney. Image: Getty

Michael Brooks holds a PhD in quantum physics. He writes a weekly science column for the New Statesman, and his most recent book is At the Edge of Uncertainty: 11 Discoveries Taking Science by Surprise.

This article first appeared in the 07 October 2013 issue of the New Statesman, The last days of Nelson Mandela

Getty/Glu Games/New Statesman
Show Hide image

The second coming of Gordon Ramsay

A star is reborn. 

It would be a lie to say that Gordon Ramsay ever disappeared. The celebrity chef made his television debut in 1997 and went on to star in shows in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017. There hasn’t been a lull in Ramsay’s career, which has arguably gone from strength to strength. In 2000, he was cooking for Vladimir Putin and Tony Blair – in 2008, he ate the raw heart of a dead puffin.

Left: Gordon Ramsay shaking hands with Vladimir Putin. Right: Gordon Ramsay hugging a puffin (different from the one he ate).

Yet we are, undeniably, in the middle of a Ramsay renaissance. How? How could a man that conquered the last twenty years of cookery-based television have an upsurge in popularity? There are only so many television channels – so many amateur donkey chefs. Wrong. The internet has enabled a Ramsay resurgence, the second act of a play overflowing with blood, sweat, and French onion soup.

Wow.

We all, of course, know about Gordon’s Twitter account. Although started in 2010, the social media profile hit the headlines in February this year when Ramsay began rating food cooked by the world’s amateur-amateur chefs. But other elements of Ramsay’s internet celebrity are more miraculous and mysterious.

His official YouTube channel uploads, on average, three videos a week. Decades old clips from Kitchen Nightmares accumulate over three million views in as many days. A 15,000 follower-strong Facebook fan page for the show – which premiered in 2007 and ended in 2014 – was set up on 19 June 2017.

Wow, wow, wow, wow. Wow.       

A Google Trends graph showing an April 2017 surge in Ramsay's popularity, after a decline in 2014.                                      

What makes a meme dank? Academics don’t know. What is apparent is that a meme parodying Gordon Ramsay’s fury over missing lamb sauce (first aired on Hell’s Kitchen in 2006) had a dramatic upsurge in popularity in December 2016. This is far from Gordon’s only meme. Image macros featuring the star are captioned with fictitious tirades from the chef, for example: “This fish is so raw… it’s still trying to find Nemo”. A parody clip from The Late Late Show with James Cordon in which Ramsay calls a woman an “idiot sandwich” has been watched nearly five million times on YouTube.

And it is on YouTube where Ramsay memes most thrive. The commenters happily parrot the chef’s most memable moments, from “IT’S RAW” to the more forlorn “fuck me” after the news something is frozen. “HELLO MY NAME IS NINOOOOO!” is an astonishingly popular comment, copied from a clip in which a Kitchen Nightmares participant mocks his brother. If you have not seen it – you should.

But what does all this mean for Ramsay’s career? His YouTube channel and Facebook page are clearly meticulously managed by his team – who respond to popular memes by clipping and cutting new videos of classic Ramsay shows. Although this undoubtedly earns a fortune in ad revenue, Ramsay’s brand has capitalised on his internet fame in more concrete ways. The chef recently voiced Gordon Ramsay Dash, a mobile game by Glu Games Inc in which you can cook with the star and he will berate or praise you for your efforts. Ten bars of gold – which are required to get upgrades and advance in the game – cost 99p.

Can other celebrity chefs learn from Ramsay? A generation will never forgive that twisted, golden piece of meat, Jamie Oliver, for robbing them of their lunch time Turkey Twizzlers. But beyond this, the internet’s love is impossible to game. Any celebrity who tried to generate an online following similar to Ramsay’s would instantly fail. Ramsay’s second coming is so prolific and powerful because it is completely organic. In many ways, the chef is not resposible for it. 

In truth, the Ramsay renaissance only worked because it was - though the chef himself would not want to admit it - completely raw.

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.