A longstanding problem has been to isolate an infectious agent that is present in our tissues that could stimulate the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Until recently, no single infection, viral or bacterial, had been implicated. Due to the significance and severity of atherosclerosis, and Nanobac's belief that nanobacteria might play a key role in its development, the company focused its early efforts on investigating the relationship between nanobacteria and atherosclerosis. Three recently published studies conducted by prominent medical researchers have collectively shown that nanobacteria might be the previously unidentified agent involved in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. A group of researchers at Mayo Clinic, led by Dr Virginia Miller, showed that nanobacteria are present in calcified atherosclerotic coronary arteries and heart valves. In September 2004, cardiovascular researcher Dr Benedict Maniscalco published a study showing that patients with severe coronary artery heart disease tested positive for nanobacterial antigen. Finally, at a recent American Heart Association scientific session in New Orleans, one of the world's most prominent heart disease researchers, Dr Stephen Epstein, director of the Cardiovascular Research Institute at Washington Hospital Medical Center, reported that 94% of people with calcified coronary arteries have nanobacterial infection as measured by Nanobac's Nanobacterial antibody assay, and that antibody results correlated with coronary calcification scoring. The collective weight of the three studies suggests that nanobacteria infection is arguably the previously unknown infectious agent associated with atherosclerotic plaque. Since nanobacteria are physically present in the diseased atherosclerotic tissues and are statistically correlated with heart disease calcification levels, it is also reasonable to assume that long-term nanobacteria infection is involved in the development of the calcification in atherosclerotic heart disease. Currently, atherosclerosis is a lifelong disease process that can lead to debilitating coronary artery heart disease, kidney disease, and many other chronic diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment of nanobacterial infections may ultimately lead to early recognition of heart disease. Nanobac continues to research the relationship between nanobacterial infection and heart disease, and has expanded its research to include other diseases involving pathological calcification. The company is seeking to collaborate with other entities to further evaluate, test and commercialize both its diagnostic and therapeutic products and pipeline.