Nuclear friction. Photo: Flickr/UK Ministry of Defence
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What are the political implications of moving Trident to Wales?

Whispers of our nuclear deterrent relocating from Scotland to Wales could be a clever move by the Tories.

Funny that one of the biggest potential threats to a working UK government is one of the biggest symbols of our national security. Yes, Trident is rearing its ugly periscope again, as whispers around Whitehall suggest it could be relocated from Scotland to Wales.

The Mail is reporting that MoD officials are secretly looking at plans to move our nuclear fleet from the Faslane naval base on the River Clyde to Milford Haven, a natural deep water port in Pembrokeshire.

Labour’s First Minister in Wales, Carwyn Jones, has previously indicated that he would be prepared to see Trident moved to Wales.

Scrapping Trident is a joint “red line” issue for the SNP, Plaid Cymru and the Greens if they are to prop up a government in Westminster. This essentially means that Labour will have a hard time making deals with these smaller parties in the event of a hung parliament unless it is willing to somehow compromise its pro-Trident stance.

Although the MoD insists it has no intention of moving Trident, the prospect of such a strategy is clever politics from the Tories.

First, it weakens the SNP in its campaign for a second independence referendum. It calls Nicola Sturgeon’s bluff. Trident was key in the build-up to last year’s referendum, as the SNP promised an independent Scotland would scrap it, and save money by doing so. In the event of another vote, it would no longer have such a visceral subject in Scotland to use in its campaign if Trident were to be moved. 

Before the referendum last year, there was talk of Trident being moved to England – something the UK government would not discuss publicly, to avoid seeming as if it were making contingency plans for Scottish independence. Now it looks like the Tories are trying to get one step ahead of Sturgeon.

Second, it takes the sting out of the SNP’s potential post-election negotiations if there is the prospect of one of the party’s boldest “red lines” being washed away by the gently lapping Pembrokeshire waters. As James Forsyth points out at the Spectator, although it’s unlikely the SNP would work with the Tories in Westminster, there are opportunities for the latter to tempt the former into some form of agreement.

But such plans would not spell a black and white win for the Tories. Weakening the SNP’s non-negotiable stance on Trident could help the party along in a deal with Labour, a potential “confidence and supply” arrangement that has so far seen a significant obstacle in the parties’ disagreement on nuclear disarmament.

As well as this, the idea of moving Trident to Wales would be a political gift for Plaid Cymru, which would finally have something tangible to rally against and over which to gain traction, in the absence of any SNP-style drive for Welsh independence.

Anoosh Chakelian is senior writer at the New Statesman.

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Why is it called Storm Doris? The psychological impact of naming a storm

“Homes being destroyed and lives being lost shouldn’t be named after any person.”

“Oh, piss off Doris,” cried the nation in unison this morning. No, it wasn't that everyone's local cantankerous old lady had thwacked our ankles with her stick. This is a different, more aggressive Doris. Less Werther’s, more extreme weathers. Less bridge club, more bridge collapse.

This is Storm Doris.

A storm that has brought snow, rain, and furious winds up to 94mph to parts of the UK. There are severe weather warnings of wind, snow and ice across the entire country.

But the real question here is: why is it called that? And what impact does the new Met Office policy of naming storms have on us?

Why do we name storms?

Storm Doris is the latest protagonist in the Met Office’s decision to name storms, a pilot scheme introduced in winter 2015/16 now in its second year.

The scheme was introduced to draw attention to severe weather conditions in Britain, and raise awareness of how to prepare for them.

How do we name storms?

The Name our Storms initiative invites the public to suggest names for storms. You can do this by tweeting the @metoffice using the #nameourstorms hashtag and your suggestion, through its Facebook page, or by emailing them.

These names are collated along with suggestions from Met Éireann and compiled into a list. These are whittled down into 21 names, according to which were most suggested – in alphabetical order and alternating between male and female names. This is done according to the US National Hurricane Naming convention, which excludes the letters Q, U, X, Y and Z because there are thought to be too few common names beginning with these letters.

They have to be human names, which is why suggestions in this list revealed by Wired – including Apocalypse, Gnasher, Megatron, In A Teacup (or Ena Tee Cup) – were rejected. The Met Office received 10,000 submissions for the 2016/17 season. According to a spokesperson, a lot of people submit their own names.

Only storms that could have a “medium” or “high” wind impact in the UK and Ireland are named. If there are more than 21 storms in a year, then the naming system starts from Alpha and goes through the Greek alphabet.

The names for this year are: Angus (19-20 Nov ’16), Barbara (23-24 Dec 2016), Conor (25-26 Dec 2016), Doris (now), Ewan, Fleur, Gabriel, Holly, Ivor, Jacqui, Kamil, Louise, Malcolm, Natalie, Oisín, Penelope, Robert, Susan, Thomas, Valerie and Wilbert.

Why does this violent storm have the name of an elderly lady?

Doris is an incongruous name for this storm, so why was it chosen? A Met Office spokesperson says they were just at that stage in their list of names, and there’s no link between the nature of the storm and its name.

But do people send cosy names for violent weather conditions on purpose? “There’s all sorts in there,” a spokesperson tells me. “People don’t try and use cosy names as such.”

What psychological impact does naming storms have on us?

We know that giving names to objects and animals immediately gives us a human connection with them. That’s why we name things we feel close to: a pet owner names their cat, a sailor names their boat, a bore names their car. We even name our virtual assistants –from Microsoft’s Clippy to Amazon’s Alexa.

This gives us a connection beyond practicality with the thing we’ve named.

Remember the response of Walter Palmer, the guy who killed Cecil the Lion? “If I had known this lion had a name and was important to the country or a study, obviously I wouldn’t have taken it,” he said. “Nobody in our hunting party knew before or after the name of this lion.”

So how does giving a storm a name change our attitude towards it?

Evidence suggests that we take it more seriously – or at least pay closer attention. A YouGov survey following the first seven named storms in the Met Office’s scheme shows that 55 per cent of the people polled took measures to prepare for wild weather after hearing that the oncoming storm had been named.

“There was an immediate acceptance of the storm names through all media,” said Gerald Fleming, Head of Forecasting at Met Éireann, the Irish metereological service. “The severe weather messages were more clearly communicated.”

But personalising a storm can backfire. A controversial US study in 2014 by PNAC (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) claimed that hurricanes with female names lead to higher death tolls – the more “feminine” the name, like Belle or Cindy, the higher the death toll. This is not because female names are attached to more severe storms; it is reportedly because people take fewer steps to prepare for storms with names they perceive to be unintimidating or weak.

“In judging the intensity of a storm, people appear to be applying their beliefs about how men and women behave,” Sharon Shavitt, a co-author of the study, told the FT at the time. “This makes a female-named hurricane . . . seem gentler and less violent.”

Names have social connotations, and affect our subconscious. Naming a storm can raise awareness of it, but it can also affect our behaviour towards it.

What’s it like sharing a name with a deadly storm?

We should also spare a thought for the impact sharing a name with a notorious weather event can have on a person. Katrina Nicholson, a nurse who lives in Glasgow, says it was “horrible” when the 2005 hurricane – one of the fifth deadliest ever in the US – was given her name.

“It was horrible having something so destructive associated with my name. Homes being destroyed and lives being lost shouldn’t be named after any person,” she tells me over email. “I actually remember at the time meeting an American tourist on a boat trip in Skye and when he heard my name he immediately linked it to the storm – although he quickly felt guilty and then said it was a lovely name! I think to this day there will be many Americans who hate my name because of it.”

Anoosh Chakelian is senior writer at the New Statesman.