A woman boards a National Express train in London. Photograph: Getty Images.
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Why Labour hasn't pledged to fully renationalise the railways

The party believes there have been some benefits from privatisation. 

One of the key issues that Labour's National Policy Forum is currently thrashing out in Milton Keynes is the party's stance on rail. As I reported yesterday, the leadership has pledged to reform the franchising process to allow a public sector operator to bid against private firms for expired contracts (it hopes to reach an agreement with delegates before Ed Miliband's speech tomorrow morning).  

In response, many have asked why it hasn't gone further and simply promised to automatically return franchises to public ownership (the position advocated by the rail unions and a significant number of CLPs). Is it scared of being portrayed as "Old Labour"?

Party sources insist not. A Labour spokesman told me earlier today that the party recognised that there had been some benefits from privatisation, for instance improved customer service, and that the cost to the state of promising to take on all franchises could be too high. Rather than committing to full renationalisation, it will judge each contract on a case-by-case basis, something the government has refused to do in the case of the East Coast Main Line (with the absurd result that state-owned operators from other countries are able to bid, but Whitehall is not). The spokesman said: "Ours is a pragmatic, hard-headed position, which seeks to do the best by the taxpayer and passengers. We have no ideological objection to the public sector, we have no ideological objection to the private sector either."

The question that Labour must now answer is how it will ensure neutrality between the two sectors in the bidding process. In an interview with the FT, CBI head John Cridland has warned that "the in-house bidder has to have no advantage". Private operators fear that the state will inevitably be biased towards itself. But for many in the party this is reason to hope that, in practice, Labour will renationalise the network over time. 

George Eaton is political editor of the New Statesman.

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I am special and I am worthless: inside the mind of a narcissist

There's been a lot of discussion about narcissists this week. But what does the term actually mean?

Since the rise of Donald Trump, the term “narcissistic” has been cropping up with great regularity in certain sections of the media, including the pages of this journal. I wouldn’t want to comment about an individual I’ve never met, but I thought it would be interesting to look at the troubling psychological health problem of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD).

People with NPD (which is estimated to affect about 1 per cent of the population) have a characteristic set of personality traits. First, they have a deeply held sense of specialness and entitlement. Male NPD sufferers frequently present as highly egotistical, with an unshakeable sense of their superiority and importance; female sufferers commonly present as eternal victims on whom the world repeatedly inflicts terrible injustices. In both cases, the affected person believes he or she is deserving of privileged treatment, and expects it as a right from those around them.

Second, NPD sufferers have little or no capacity for empathy, and usually relate to other people as objects (as opposed to thinking, feeling beings) whose sole function is to meet the narcissist’s need for special treatment and admiration – known as “supply”. In order to recruit supply, NPD sufferers become highly skilled at manipulating people’s perceptions of them, acting out what is called a “false self” – the glittering high achiever, the indefatigable do-gooder, the pitiable victim.

The third characteristic is termed “splitting”, where the world is experienced in terms of two rigid categories – either Good or Bad – with no areas of grey. As long as others are meeting the narcissist’s need for supply, they are Good, and they find themselves idealised and showered with reciprocal positive affirmation – a process called “love-bombing”. However, if someone criticises or questions the narcissist’s false self, that person becomes Bad, and is subjected to implacable hostility.

It is not known for certain what triggers the disorder. There is likely to be a genetic component, but in many cases early life experiences are the primary cause. Narcissism is a natural phase of child development (as the parents of many teenagers will testify) and its persistence as adult NPD frequently reflects chronic trauma during childhood. Paradoxically for a condition that often manifests as apparent egotism, all NPD sufferers have virtually non-existent self-esteem. This may arise from ongoing emotional neglect on the part of parents or caregivers, or from sustained psychological or sexual abuse.

The common factor is a failure in the development of a healthy sense of self-worth. It is likely that narcissism becomes entrenched as a defence against the deep-seated shame associated with these experiences of being unworthy and valueless.

When surrounded by supply, the NPD sufferer can anaesthetise this horrible sense of shame with the waves of positive regard washing over them. Equally, when another person destabilises that supply (by criticising or questioning the narcissist’s false self) this is highly threatening, and the NPD sufferer will go to practically any lengths to prevent a destabiliser adversely influencing other people’s perceptions of the narcissist.

One of the many tragic aspects of NPD is the invariable lack of insight. A narcissist’s experience of the world is essentially: “I am special; some people love me for this, and are Good; some people hate me for it, and are Bad.” If people with NPD do present to health services, it is usually because of the negative impacts Bad people are having on their life, rather than because they are able to recognise that they have a psychological health problem.

Far more commonly, health professionals end up helping those who have had the misfortune to enter into a supply relationship with an NPD sufferer. Narcissism is one of the most frequent factors in intimate partner and child abuse, as well as workplace bullying. The narcissist depends on the positive affirmation of others to neutralise their own sense of unworthiness. They use others to shore themselves up, and lash out at those who threaten this precarious balance. And they leave a trail of damaged people in their wake. 

This article first appeared in the 16 February 2017 issue of the New Statesman, The New Times