Overcrowded hostels and expensive B&Bs can lead to people sleeping on the streets. Photo: Getty
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Life in limbo: what it’s like to be one of Britain’s hidden homeless

The threat of people losing their home if they rent is at its highest level in more than a decade.

Rob is trying to raise money for a room tonight. The hostels are full, the ones that haven’t closed down, and he doesn’t have enough for a B&B. It’s been a difficult day again. 

“I’m really tired,” he says. “I got soaked in the rain today and my feet were soaking because I’m wearing shoes with holes in them and can’t afford to buy a pair. My clothes are dirty because I can’t afford to wash them. I had to use a food voucher to get something to eat today. I feel completely humiliated, and the council doesn’t care.”

Rob, 40, went into rent arrears when his council stopped his housing benefit for “failing to occupy his property” (a claim he denies). He was given an eviction notice at Christmas and he was homeless by the New Year. For the past six months, he’s been finding a place to sleep on a day-to-day basis. He tries for B&Bs but they’re expensive – £140 a week. Rob has Crohn’s disease and diabetes, and hostels, cramped and dirty, make him worse. Other nights he goes to family for help – difficult conversations with loved ones on low incomes themselves – or he has to sleep on the street.

“Each day is a fight for survival just to get somewhere to stay and something to eat. I’ve not had a proper nights rest for seven months,” he says. “I had to go past my old home a few days ago. It was an emotional experience, going past it, and knowing that’s not my home anymore.”

The threat of people losing their home if they rent is at its highest level in more than a decade, official figures from the Ministry of Justice show. Benefit changes, including the introduction of the bedroom tax, and an increase in sanctions, such as housing benefit being suspended, are driving up the number being threatened with eviction. Rob was one of 31,000 people in social housing who received a notice to seek possession at the start of this year. That’s 525 a day.

“Housing benefit is a safety net and for many it’s all that stands between them and homelessness,” says Leslie Morphy, chief executive of Crisis. “Homelessness has been on the rise for the last three years. Rough sleeping in particular has risen steeply and by a massive 75 per cent in London. Harsh cuts to housing benefits and a lack of affordable housing have taken a heavy toll.” 

Rob has been getting reduced housing benefit as he waits for a tribunal to appeal the council’s decision to stop the benefit entirely, but it’s only a third of what he needs to pay for a B&B room each night. His long-term illness means he has muscle weakness and exhaustion, as well as pain, and he receives Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) as he’s unable to work. His benefits aren’t enough to pay for both a room in temporary accommodation every night and food, so often it’s a choice between the two.

“ESA doesn’t cover half the costs of B&Bs. It barely covers my food budget,” he says. “I looked for work the other day, even though I’m not fit for work and there was nothing but voluntary jobs. That or part time work, six, eight hours a week. I have to eat every few hours to maintain normal blood sugar but I’m over my food bank limit and I’ve used all my food vouchers.

His health problems are getting worse.     

“I’ve lost a lot of weight,” he says. “The meal I had a few days ago was the first proper meal I’ve had in months.  I’ve had hypos with my diabetes in front of them [people from the council] due to lack of food left to starve basically, not once, but week after week.”

Moving from a hostel to a friend’s sofa every night, no certainty of where you’ll sleep or whether you can eat, is a unique strain on the mind and body, even for someone without a disability or long-term illness.  It can also see a person fall out of the system entirely.

“My doctors weren’t going to allow me to go to hospital to see the diabetic specialist because I don’t have a permanent address,” Rob says. “The council won’t help me. They say they have no duty of care.”

Authorities do not have a duty to secure accommodation for all homeless people (pdf). They only have an absolute duty to secure accommodation for households who are deemed to be unintentionally homeless as well as being in priority need (such as, families with children or someone with a disability).

Rob’s tribunal is next week. He’s sent away the paperwork and is now left hoping a successful appeal over his housing benefit will be the beginning of getting a home.

“Legal aid cuts mean I’ve had minimal help preparing,” he adds.

The government is aware of the swathes of people like Rob appealing “incorrect” council homelessness decisions. Their solution, as far, is to invite private companies to bid for a £4.5m housing advice contract that’ll deliver support, advice and training for front line housing staff from October this year to March 2016. The move comes after a number of high profile legal challenges against councils’ homelessness decisions. Last month, Croydon Council agreed to pay a homeless family £1,475 after breaking the law by keeping them in bed and breakfast accommodation for more than seven months. 

It’s been clear for some time B&Bs are becoming a part of what constitutes housing in this country. Temporary accommodation is not just the destination for those who’ve fallen out of the system like Rob but, for some councils, a form of housing provision. There are almost 60,000 homeless households living in temporary accommodation, including B&Bs, according to the most recent figures issued by the Government (at the end of December 2013). In the first two years of the Coalition, the number of families with children in a B&B for more than six weeks went up by 331 per cent. The lack of affordable housing, with ever-growing social housing waiting lists, means it is difficult to know whether this is local authorities failing or finding a desperate solution. It speaks to the scale of the problem, though, that some councils are not even providing this basic level of help. Back in 2011, as cuts started to hit, the Local Government Ombudsman was already investigating more than 300 complaints a year from people claiming to have been denied access to even temporary accommodation. The complaints suggested that “people who face homelessness do not always receive the help that they are entitled to from councils”, it said.

People like Rob, meanwhile, pushed outside the council’s duty of care, are increasingly finding themselves in our very modern sort of homelessness; scrabbling for money for a room for one night, living between the street and hostels and out of B&Bs.

“It’s draining surviving day to day when your money runs out. I have no security or peace of mind,” Rob says. “The B&B is very basic. It’s hellish on a weekend with the stag parties because you can’t sleep for the noise. There’s a communal shower here but not a bath and I’ve been dying to take a bath for months because it’s the only thing that helps with the pains I get in my legs.”

His contact with the council has amounted to suggestions of local hostels.

“They’ve tried to push me into a hostel, so they can dump me there, and say well you’ve got accommodation now so you don’t need a home,” he says. “I’ve stayed in a hostel before. Drug users and alcoholics shouting in the middle night. It was dirty, the beds were filthy and covered in urine and other stains. There was cigarette ash everywhere, cold water, no heating on.” 

“Rough sleeping is only part of the picture of homelessness,” confirms Morphy at Crisis. “Out of sight of the official statistics, many more people are struggling in hidden situations – on the streets or in squats, in hostels or sleeping on the sofas of friends or family.”

The problem of homelessness – and this country’s response to it – goes beyond some spikes on the ground. More than 100,000 people have been barred from housing waiting lists since councils were granted powers to change their allocations policies, according to research by Inside Housing. The ones granted the privilege of being someone their council has a legal duty to help are left to wait; more homeless people than homes. The coalition has cut housing benefit as local councils have cut homelessness services. In the first two years of this government, 2,206 bed spaces in hostels and other accommodation services were lost.  On an average night, 83 per cent of services now don’t have a single empty bed.  These people, pushed through the ever-gaping safety net, are the faceless forgotten.

“I’ve seen a lot more people sleeping rough lately,” Rob tells me. “Sometimes I try to offer them advice of places to go to try and get help in being rehoused but they tell me they’re on waiting lists. The waiting lists are getting longer by the day.”

“I saw a young girl the other day, maybe 16, 17 years old and in quite a distressed state,” he says. “She was sitting in the rain begging for change. I gave her half a sandwich I’d bought but felt bad I couldn’t do more for her.”

“I was hoping to see a flat today but got a call to say it had been given to a family. Another one I wanted to look at, the landlord waited until today to tell me that the deposit is £1,000. More and more landlords are refusing people who get benefits so it’s really hard to find anything to apply for,” he says. “I feel trapped. It feels like I’m never going to get of this situation no matter what I do and that I’m just wasting time fighting all these people the council, the Jobcenter, the government.” 

We speak again a couple of weeks later; eleven more days and nights of trying to piece together enough money for a room. The DWP have falsely stopped Rob’s ESA payments and his barely-there income has gone.

“They quickly reinstated them but said it will be a week before I have any money to my name,” he says. “They said they didn’t know I was homeless and had no address even though I told them six months ago. I went to Citizens Advice Bureau to ask them try and get the DWP to give me hardship loan. They tried but DWP refused. I’m a bit lost for words because every day when I think things are bad as they can possibly get, there’s some new problem that’s worse than the last one.”  

“I just don’t think I can keep going on like this, I’ve had six months of my life completely wiped out, and the people responsible are all getting on with their lives while mine is in ruins. I’ve got more grey hairs in six months than the last five years. I told myself last week, this is the last week I’m doing this I can’t keep fighting to survive every day. I feel like I’m living in the third world.” 

“I’m just past exhausted with it all,” he says. “I can’t believe almost half the year’s gone and my whole life is being taken up with trying to survive.”

“I want a long rest now, I need it,” he adds. “I just want a long bath, and a long rest in a comfortable bed.”

Rob tweets his experience of homelessness here @wordsofdjc

Frances Ryan is a journalist and political researcher. She writes regularly for the Guardian, New Statesman, and others on disability, feminism, and most areas of equality you throw at her. She has a doctorate in inequality in education. Her website is here.

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How Jeremy Corbyn won the Labour leadership election

The revolt against the leader transformed him from an incumbent back into an insurgent. 

On the evening of 12 July, after six hours of talks, Jeremy Corbyn emerged triumphantly from Labour’s headquarters. “I’m on the ballot paper!” he told supporters gathered outside. “We will be campaigning on all the things that matter.”

The contest that Corbyn’s opponents had sought desperately to avoid had begun. Neither a vote of no confidence by 81 per cent of Labour MPs, nor 65 frontbench resignations had persuaded him to stand down. Days of negotiations led by Tom Watson had failed (“For years I’ve been told that I’m a fixer. Well, I tried to fix this and I couldn’t,” Labour’s deputy leader sorrowfully told the parliamentary party). The rebels’ last hope was that the National Executive Committee would force Corbyn to reseek nominations. After being backed by just 40 colleagues in the confidence vote, both sides knew that the leader would struggle to achieve 51 signatures.

But by 18-14, the NEC ruled that Corbyn would be automatically on the ballot (“Watson, Watson, what’s the score?” chanted jubilant aides in the leader’s office). After withstanding a 16-day revolt, Corbyn appeared liberated by the prospect of a summer of campaigning. His confidence prefigured the outcome two months later.

Corbyn did not merely retain the leadership - he won by a greater margin than last time (with 61.8 per cent of the vote to last year's 59.5 per cent) and triumphed among all three sections: party members, affiliated supporters and registered supporters. The rebels had hoped to narrow his mandate and win among at least one group: they did neither. Far from being a curse for Corbyn, the contest proved to be a blessing. 

***

The day before the pivotal NEC meeting, Angela Eagle, who had been preparing to stand for months, launched her leadership bid. The former shadow business secretary was admired by MPs for her experience, tenacity, and economic acumen. Her trade union links and soft left background were further cited in favour of her candidacy.

But after an underwhelming launch, which clashed with Andrea Leadsom’s withdrawal from the Conservative contest (leaving Eagle calling questions from absent journalists), MPs gravitated towards Owen Smith.

Like Eagle, Smith hailed from the party’s soft left and had initially served under Corbyn (two prerequisites in the rebels’ eyes). But unlike her, the former shadow and work pensions secretary did not vote for the Iraq war (having entered parliament in 2010) or the 2015 Syria intervention. “It looks like the war party,” a senior Corbynite said of Eagle’s campaign launch with Hilary Benn. Many Labour MPs feared the same. With the left-leaning Lisa Nandy having ruled herself out, only the ambitious Smith met the criteria.

“I’d been in hospital for two days with my brother, who was unwell, in south Wales,” he recalled when I interviewed him.  “I came out having literally been in A&E at Cardiff Heath hospital for 29 hours, looking after him, to have my phone light up with 30, 40, 50 colleagues, MPs and members, ringing up saying ‘there’s going to be a contest, Angela Eagle has thrown her hat into the ring, you should do likewise.’ And at that point, on the Wednesday night, I started ringing people to test opinion and found that there was a huge amount of support for me.”

On 19 July, after Smith won 90 MP/MEP nominations to Eagle’s 72, the latter withdrew in favour of the Welshman. A week after the Conservatives achieved their second female prime minister, Labour’s 116-year record of all-male leaders endured. Though Smith vowed that Eagle would be “at my right hand throughout this contest”, she went on to appear at just one campaign event.

Corbyn’s challenger was embraced by MPs as a “clean skin”, untainted by service during the New Labour years. But Smith’s non-parliamentary past was swiftly - and ruthlessly - exploited by his opponents. His time at the US drugs firm Pfizer was cited as evidence of his closeness to big business. Corbyn’s supporters also seized on interviews given by Smith as a by-election candidate in 2006.

The man pitching to the left was found to have defended Tony Blair (suggesting that they differed only over the Iraq war), supported private sector involvement in the NHS and praised city academies. “I'm not someone, frankly, who gets terribly wound up about some of the ideological nuances,” he told Wales Online. Such lines were rapidly disseminated by Corbyn supporters through social media.

“Getting out early and framing Owen was crucial,” a Corbyn source told me. A Smith aide echoed this assessment: “It helped secure their base, it took a load of people out of contention.”

Throughout the campaign, Smith would struggle to reconcile his past stances with his increasingly left-wing programme: opposing private provision in the NHS, returning academy schools to local authority control, banning zero-hours contracts and imposing a wealth tax of 1 per cent. “It was easy for us to go for the jugular over his background when he portrayed himself as a left candidate,” a Corbyn source said.

Smith insisted that the charge of opportunism was unmerited. “To be honest, my opponents have extrapolated rather a lot in an attempt to brand me as a ‘Blairite wolf in sheep’s clothing,’” he told me in August. “Well, I’m nothing of the sort, I’ve always been a democratic socialist and I always will be.” He added: “I’m someone who’s been surrounded by people who’ve been on the left of the Labour movement all their lives. It should come as no surprise that I’ve come out of that background and I’m pretty red. Because I am.”

But a former shadow cabinet colleague said that Smith did not stand out as “a radical” in meetings. “The only time that I remember him becoming really animated was over further tax-raising powers for Scotland and the implications for Wales.”

As well as Smith’s ambiguous past, Corbyn’s allies believe the breadth of his political coalition hindered him from the start. “He was trying to bring together Blairites, Brownites and every other -ite in between,” a campaign source said. “That was never going to hold, we knew that and from the moment there were splits it was easy to point out.”

Jon Trickett, the shadow business secretary and one of Corbyn’s early supporters, told me: “They tried to pretend that there was no distinction between them and Jeremy on policy grounds, they tried to narrow down the areas of difference to electability. But, frankly, it didn’t seem credible since some of the people behind it were absolutely ideologically opposed to Jeremy. Peter Mandelson and people like that.”

A frequently expressed charge was that Smith’s left-wing pledges would be overturned by Blairite figures if he won. John McGeechan, a 22-year-old postgraduate student who joined Labour after “self-indulgent, self-serving MPs initiated their corridor coup”, told me of Smith: “He’s just another mealy-mouthed careerist who says whatever he thinks is going to get him elected. I don’t believe at all that he means what he says about creating a radical socialist government given that he’s got the backing of Peter Mandelson, Alastair Campbell and Tony Blair, people who’ve disagreed with Corbyn on pretty much all his socialist policies. I don’t believe that he’s going to stand up to these people.”

Whether believable or not, Smith’s programme showed how Corbyn had shifted Labour’s centre of gravity radically leftwards - his original aim in June 2015.

***

On the night Corbyn made the leadership ballot, the rebels still found cause for hope. Unlike in 2015, the NEC imposed a freeze date of six months on voting (excluding 130,000 new members) and increased the registered supporter fee from £3 to £25 (while reducing the sign-up period to two days). “It’s game on!” a senior figure told me. By narrowing the selectorate, Corbyn’s opponents hoped to achieve a path to victory. With fewer registered supporters (84 per cent of whom voted for Corbyn last year), they believed full party members and affiliated trade unionists could carry Smith over the line.

But when 183,000 paid £25 to vote, their expectations were confounded. Far from being “game on”, it looked to many rebels like game over. Once again, Corbyn’s opponents had underestimated the left’s recruiting capacity. Smith’s lack of name recognition and undistinctive pitch meant he could not compete.

Alongside the main contest were increasingly fractious legal battles over voting rights. On 28 July, the high court rejected Labour donor Michael Foster’s challenge to Corbyn’s automatic inclusion on the ballot. Then on 8 August, a judge ruled that the party had wrongly excluded new members from voting, only for the decision to be overturned on appeal.

In the view of Corbyn’s allies, such legal manevoures unwittingly aided him. “They turned Jeremy, who was an incumbent, back into an insurgent,” Trickett told me. “The proponents of the challenge made it seem like he was the underdog being attacked by the establishment.”

Smith, who repeatedly framed himself as the “unity candidate”, struggled to escape the shadow of the “corridor coup”. That many of his supporters had never accepted Corbyn’s leadership rendered him guilty by association.

“The coup had an enormous galvanising effect and an enormous politicising effect,” a Corbyn source told me. “For a great number of people who supported Jeremy last year, there was a feeling, ‘well, we’ve done the work, that’s happened, now over to him.’ What the coup meant for a lot of people was that this isn’t about Jeremy Corbyn, this is a people’s movement, which we all need to lead.” The Corbyn campaign signed up 40,000 volunteers and raised £300,000 in small donations from 19,000 people (with an average donation of £16). Against this activist army, their rivals’ fledgling effort stood no chance.

“At the launch rally, we had 12 simultaneous events going on round the country, livestreamed to each other,” a Corbyn source said. “We had a lot of communication with people who were big in the Sanders campaign. In the UK context, it’s trailblazing.”

On 12 August, after previously equivocating, Smith ruled out returning to the shadow cabinet under Corbyn. “I've lost confidence in you. I will serve Labour on the backbenches,” he declared at a hustings in Gateshead. In the view of Corbyn’s team, it was a fatal error. “He shot apart his whole unity message,” a source said.

Smith, who initially offered Corbyn the post of party president, was rarely booed more than when he lamented Labour’s divisions. As one of the 172 MPs who voted against the leader, he was regarded as part of the problem, rather than the solution. By the end, Smith was reduced to insisting “I wasn’t in favour of there being a challenge” - a statement that appeared absurd to most.

As well as his leftist credentials and unifying abilities, Smith’s other main boast was his competence and articulacy. “HIs USP was that he was this media-savvy guy,” a Corbyn source said. “As a result, he threw himself up for any and every media opportunity and made tons of gaffes. We just made sure people were aware of them.”

The most enduring gaffe came early in the campaign, on 27 July, when he spoke of wanting mto “smash” Theresa May “back on her heels”. Though Smith initially defended his “robust rhetoric” (“you’ll be getting that from me”), by the afternoon his campaign had apologised. What was explained as a “rugby reference” dogged them for weeks. “It played into the hands of how Corbyn wanted to depict us,” a Smith source told me. “It was really hard to shake off.”

More unforced errors followed. Smith suggested getting Isis “round the table”, in anticipation, many believed, of Corbyn agreeing. But the Labour leader baulked at the proposal: “No, they are not going to be round the table”. Corbyn’s communications team, more organised and agile than in 2015, denounced Smith’s remarks as “hasty and ill-considered”. As with “smashed”, the Labour challenger had achieved rare cut-through - but for the wrong reasons.

Smith’s rhetorical looseness became a recurring problem. At a rally on 23 August, he appeared to refer to Corbyn as a “lunatic”. In an interview with the Daily Mirror, he said of meeting his wife: “1,200 boys, three girls and I pulled Liz. So I must have something going on. That must be leadership.”

Earlier in the campaign, Smith’s team denied that the candidate referred to the size of his penis when he quipped of his height: "5ft 6. 29 inches - inside leg!” The guffaws from his supporters suggested otherwise.

We used to have a gaffe counter,” a Corbyn source told me. “I think it got up to 30 by the end.”

Smith’s team, meanwhile, despaired at how the Labour leader’s own missteps failed to dent him. The discovery that Corbyn had in fact secured a seat on a Virgin train, contrary to initial impressions, did little lasting damage. “It’s priced in, the bar is much lower for him,” a Smith source complained.

Incorrect claims, such as Labour being level in the polls before the coup attempt and Corbyn giving 122 speeches during the EU referendum campaign, were believed by many of his supporters. “How do you rebut bullshit?” a Smith aide asked. “If you respond, it becomes a story.”

So frequently had Labour MPs condemned their leader that extraordinary charges were soon forgotten. On 22 August, shadow business minister Chi Onwurah wrote in the New Statesman that Corbyn’s treatment of her and Thangam Debbonaire could constitute “racial discrimination”.

If this had been any of my previous employers in the public and private sectors Jeremy might well have found himself before an industrial tribunal for constructive dismissal, probably with racial discrimination thrown in,” she argued. But within a day, the story had moved on.  

For Smith, fleeting momentum was achieved through significant endorsements. On 10 August, the GMB backed his campaign after becoming the only trade union to ballot its members. The following week, Labour’s most senior elected politician, Sadiq Khan, endorsed Smith. Unlike Andy Burnham, the London mayor believed he could not remain neutral during this profound schism. Smith was subsequently also backed by the Scottish Labour leader, Kezia Dugdale. Neil Kinnock and Ed Miliband trumpeted his cause. Yet such declarations counted for little. “It’s like the Remain campaign and the Archbishop of Canterbury,” one Smith ally told me, suggesting that Labour members, like Leave voters, ”weren’t listening” to such grandees.

But in the view of Corbyn’s team, the rebels profoundly “underestimated” their opponent. “He’s a nice guy but he also has an inner steel and won't flinch from a challenge. The Obi-Wan Kenobi comparison is very accurate when you work up close with him. He’s also extremely intelligent and has a great grasp and retention of detail. It showed in the debates.”

“I have to say, I felt pretty sorry for Owen at several points,” another Corbyn source reflected. “Whatever it was, his ambition or being pushed into it, it didn’t seem like it was the right time for him. He hadn’t worked out what he was about and why that fitted with the times.”

***

Those Labour MPs who long warned that an early challenge to Corbyn would prove futile have been vindicated. “Party members are always loyal to the incumbent,” a senior source astutely noted. In the case of Corbyn, a lifelong campaigner, who many contended was “never given a chance”, this traditional fealty was intensified.

“Most of the people backing and funding him didn’t think Owen was going to win,” a Corbyn source said. “Their aim was, one, to reduce Jeremy’s mandate and, secondly, to map the selectorate.”

Having won a second leadership contest - an unprecedented achievement for the Labour left - the leader’s supporters insist their ambitions do not end here. “We’ve got to think incredibly seriously about how we win a general election in a totally changed landscape,” a Corbyn source told me. “This campaign has been showing how to do it.” But a Smith aide warned that it was a “massive strategic error” to make electability, rather than principle, the defining test of Corbyn. The leader, he suggested, could withstand a general election defeat provided he simply affirmed his values.

Beyond regarding a split as worthless, Labour MPs are divided on how to proceed. Some want another leadership challenge as early as next year. Rather than seeking to narrow the selectorate, they speak of recruiting hundreds of thousands of new members to overpower the left. “There are lots of people out there who want a credible, electable, centre-left proposition and we have not given them enough of a reason to sign up,” a former shadow cabinet minister told me. “Who has an offer and the charisma to be able to bring in new people? That has to be the question the next time round.”

Others believe that backbenchers should follow Thumper’s law: “If you can’t say something nice, don’t say anything at all.”  A senior MP argued that MPs should “just shut up” and “let Jeremy crack on with it.” The imperative, he said, was to avoid MPs “taking the blame for us getting thumped in a snap election”. Some are prepared to move beyond neutrality to outright support by serving under Corbyn.

The Labour left and their most recalcitrant opponents both confront challenges of electability. The former must demonstrate a path to victory despite Corbyn’s subterranean poll ratings. The latter, who boast so often of their superior appeal, must face a remorseless truth. Until they are electable in the party, they will never be electable in the country.

George Eaton is political editor of the New Statesman.