You can’t reduce poverty without an adequate welfare state

Labour is right to look to boost wages and housing, but international evidence shows that pre-distribution can never be the whole answer.

No one denies that Rachel Reeves, as Labour’s shadow work and pensions secretary, has one of the toughest gigs in town. Fiscally, it seems a Labour government would cap spending on social security. Politically, at a time when highly punitive policies such as the benefit cap attract broad public support, Labour is sensitive to proposing any reform that could be spun as "soft on scroungers". Getting the politics and the economics right will not be easy.

Reeves’s long-awaited speech on social security yesterday was clearly a product of this highly constrained context. Insisting claimants must improve their basic skills looks sensible if implemented fairly, while the focus on contribution is palatable from both the fiscal and political point of view. Given the boundaries within which she operates, Reeves’s decision not to hive off 18-to-24-year-olds from mainstream social security provision and subject them to especial opprobrium has to be commended.

But what did the speech have to offer those of us who see poverty reduction as one of the key functions of a social security system? It’s great to see the political establishment finally recognise that we expect social security to do too much of the heavy lifting in the UK. High housing costs, low levels of parental employment, low and often sporadic wages all require the state to step in and help more than it has to in other developed economies. Without a doubt, addressing these structural determinants would both decrease poverty and drive down the social security bill in one fell swoop.

But international evidence also shows us that pre-distribution can never be the whole answer. The countries we look to as beacons of success - the Nordics, the Netherlands, Germany – still run poverty rates of over 20 per cent before their governments weigh in with taxes and transfers. Unpalatable though it may be, the truth is you can’t reduce poverty without an adequate social security system. 

So where does this leave Reeves and team? In a difficult place for sure. But is it as simple a choice as talk tough or commit political suicide? A public call to remember why we have – and should prize – our social security system is essential and one politicians have long neglected.  It should also be possible to make a case for building a new consensus around the objective of fairness and, crucially, tell us what response Labour can offer to the poorest families, who have borne the brunt of austerity to date. Hard tasks perhaps, but not impossible and they carry the potential to transform the lives of millions. As the evidence shows, without a sustainable settlement on working-age – and especially family – benefits, child poverty looks set to remain an enduring and shameful feature of the British landscape. 

Children play a game of football in front of a residential development in the London borough of Tower Hamlets. Photograph: Getty Images.

Alison Garnham is chief executive of the Child Poverty Action Group

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“I felt very lonely”: addressing the untold story of isolation among young mothers

With one in five young mothers lonely “all the time”, it’s time for employers and services to step up.

“Despite having my child with me all the time, I felt very lonely,” says Laura Davies. A member of an advisory panel for the Young Women’s Trust, she had her son age 20. Now, with a new report suggesting that one in five young mums “feels lonely all the time”, she’s sharing her story.

Polling commissioned by the Young Women’s Trust has highlighted the isolation that young motherhood can bring. Of course, getting out and about the same as you did before is never easy once there’s a young child in the picture. For young mothers, however, the situation can be particularly difficult.

According to the report, over a quarter of young mothers leave the house just once a week or less, with some leaving just once a month.

Aside from all the usual challenges – like wrestling a colicky infant into their jacket, or pumping milk for the trip with one hand while making sure no-one is crawling into anything dangerous with the other – young mothers are more likely to suffer from a lack of support network, or to lack the confidence to approach mother-baby groups and other organisations designed to help. In fact, some 68 per cent of young mothers said they had felt unwelcome in a parent and toddler group.

Davies paints what research suggests is a common picture.

“Motherhood had alienated me from my past. While all my friends were off forging a future for themselves, I was under a mountain of baby clothes trying to navigate my new life. Our schedules were different and it became hard to find the time.”

“No one ever tells you that when you have a child you will feel an overwhelming sense of love that you cannot describe, but also an overwhelming sense of loneliness when you realise that your life won’t be the same again.

More than half of 16 to 24-year-olds surveyed said that they felt lonelier since becoming a mother, with more than two-thirds saying they had fewer friends than before. Yet making new friends can be hard, too, especially given the judgement young mothers can face. In fact, 73 per cent of young mothers polled said they’d experienced rudeness or unpleasant behaviour when out with their children in public.

As Davies puts it, “Trying to find mum friends when your self-confidence is at rock bottom is daunting. I found it easier to reach out for support online than meet people face to face. Knowing they couldn’t judge me on my age gave me comfort.”

While online support can help, however, loneliness can still become a problem without friends to visit or a workplace to go to. Many young mothers said they would be pleased to go back to work – and would prefer to earn money rather than rely on benefits. After all, typing some invoices, or getting back on the tills, doesn’t just mean a paycheck – it’s also a change to speak to someone old enough to understand the words “type”, “invoice” and “till”.

As Young Women’s Trust chief executive Dr Carole Easton explains, “More support is needed for young mothers who want to work. This could include mentoring to help ease women’s move back into education or employment.”

But mothers going back to work don’t only have to grapple with childcare arrangements, time management and their own self-confidence – they also have to negotiate with employers. Although the 2003 Employment Act introduced the right for parents of young children to apply to work flexibly, there is no obligation for their employer to agree. (Even though 83 per cent of women surveyed by the Young Women’s Trust said flexible hours would help them find secure work, 26 per cent said they had had a request turned down.)

Dr Easton concludes: “The report recommends access to affordable childcare, better support for young women at job centres and advertising jobs on a flexible, part-time or job share basis by default.”

Stephanie Boland is digital assistant at the New Statesman. She tweets at @stephanieboland