The Peterloo Massacre, the Levellers and the Chartists: why have we forgotten our radical history?

The visionary and brave groups who fought for democracy shouldn’t be afterthoughts when talking about British history, they should be treated as a fundamental part of it.

There’s a posh hotel in the middle of Manchester called the Radisson Edwardian – it’s a regular haunt for politicians when party conferences head to the city. If you look carefully, you’ll see a plaque commemorating the fact that one of the most disgraceful, and totemic, moments in British history happened on the site of the hotel. 

The Peterloo Massacre, in which fifteen people were killed and hundreds injured when the cavalry charged a peaceful demonstration for parliamentary reform, happened on this day in 1819. Lord Liverpool’s already reactionary government grew even more repressive. The massacre inspired generations of radicals to keep up the fight for reform and inspired Shelley to write one of the greatest political/ protest poems ever written, ‘The Mask of Anarchy’, with words that still resonate to this day:

'And that slaughter to the Nation
Shall steam up like inspiration,
Eloquent, oracular;
A volcano heard afar.

'And these words shall then become
Like Oppression's thundered doom
Ringing through each heart and brain,
Heard again - again - again -

'Rise like Lions after slumber
In unvanquishable number -
Shake your chains to earth like dew
Which in sleep had fallen on you -
Ye are many - they are few.'

Peterloo remains one of the most important, shocking events in British history. But today we hear next to nothing about the anniversary. The plaque on the wall of the hotel is the only memorial to the massacre and many schoolchildren leave school without any knowledge of the event. Today’s newspapers have barely mentioned the anniversary. Surely such an event of profound importance needs more than a small blue plaque on the side of an upmarket hotel to commemorate it and pay tribute to the sacrifice of those killed and the bravery of the protestors?

There’s a campaign for a more fitting memorial to the massacre and there surely must be a permanent statue near the site of the event. But we also need to do more as a nation to remember the pioneers who helped to ensure that we have a sovereign Commons and a functioning democracy today.

We should be ashamed that some people don’t know about Peterloo, or have, at best, a sketchy knowledge of the Levellers, the Chartists and the Suffragettes – all an important and inspiring part of our island history.

Sadly, the lack of a memorial to Peterloo is replicated when it comes to saluting the memory of these other groups. If you pay a visit to the pretty Cotswolds town of Burford, where the Levellers had their last stand with Cromwell’s troops, you can see little evidence of their presence. You have to go to the church, where the stand-off occurred, to find a small plaque to their presence.

John Lilburne, one of the most inspirational characters in British history, has been condemned, like his fellow Levellers to be a footnote in history. Lilburne, or 'Freeborn John' was, at one point flogged from Fleet Prison to Westminster as a punishment by the Star Chamber for distributing unlicensed literature. While in the pillory, he still distributed some more of this unlicensed literature to the crowd. The ideas of the Levellers: freeborn rights, manhood suffrage, freedom of the press, supremacy of the Commons, free trade, breaking up of monopolies and that "the poorest he that is in England hath a life to live as the greatest he" was thoroughly ahead of its time and absolutely worth celebrating.

It’s all well and good expecting schoolchildren to be able to know the Kings and Queens of England by heart, but they should also leave school with a well-rounded knowledge of the other movements who have shaped our history and our democracy. All too often, these movements are treated with indifference at best.

Such a level of indifference to our great ancestors is nothing new of course. H. N .Brailsford put it most poignantly in his biography of the Levellers:

Truly we are an ungrateful and forgetful nation. Never, though its population counted less than five millions, has England produced in thought and action so many daring pioneers as in those days of the Commonwealth, when men staked their all for an idea, and lived with an intensity their descendants have never touched.

It’s about time that we stopped being an ungrateful and forgetful nation. Events like the Peterloo Massacre should be commemorated properly. Visionary and brave groups such as the Levellers, Chartists and Suffragettes shouldn’t be afterthoughts when talking about British history, they should be treated as a fundamental part of it.

David Skelton is the director of Renewal, a new campaign group aiming to broaden the appeal of the Conservative Party to working class and ethnic minority voters. @djskelton

'The Massacre of Peterloo or Britons Strike Home'. British soldiers charging the crowd at St Peter's Fields, Manchester in 1819. Photograph: Getty Images.

David Skelton is the director of Renewal, a new campaign group aiming to broaden the appeal of the Conservative Party to working class and ethnic minority voters. @djskelton

Photo: Getty
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Leaving the cleaning to someone else makes you happier? Men have known that for centuries

Research says avoiding housework is good for wellbeing, but women have rarely had the option.

If you want to be happy, there is apparently a trick: offload the shitwork onto somebody else. Hire cleaner. Get your groceries delivered. Have someone else launder your sheets. These are the findings published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, but it’s also been the foundation of our economy since before we had economics. Who does the offloading? Men. Who does the shitwork? Women.

Over the last 40 years, female employment has risen to almost match the male rate, but inside the home, labour sticks stubbornly to old patterns: men self-report doing eight hours of housework a week, while women slog away for 13. When it comes to caring for family members, the difference is even more stark: men do ten hours, and women 23.

For your average heterosexual couple with kids, that means women spend 18 extra hours every week going to the shops, doing the laundry, laying out uniform, doing the school run, loading dishwashers, organising doctors' appointments, going to baby groups, picking things up, cooking meals, applying for tax credits, checking in on elderly parents, scrubbing pots, washing floors, combing out nits, dusting, folding laundry, etcetera etcetera et-tedious-cetera.

Split down the middle, that’s nine hours of unpaid work that men just sit back and let women take on. It’s not that men don’t need to eat, or that they don’t feel the cold cringe of horror when bare foot meets dropped food on a sticky kitchen floor. As Katrine Marçal pointed out in Who Cooked Adam Smiths Dinner?, men’s participation in the labour market has always relied on a woman in the background to service his needs. As far as the majority of men are concerned, domestic work is Someone Else’s Problem.

And though one of the study authors expressed surprise at how few people spend their money on time-saving services given the substantial effect on happiness, it surely isn’t that mysterious. The male half of the population has the option to recruit a wife or girlfriend who’ll do all this for free, while the female half faces harsh judgement for bringing cover in. Got a cleaner? Shouldn’t you be doing it yourself rather than outsourcing it to another woman? The fact that men have even more definitively shrugged off the housework gets little notice. Dirt apparently belongs to girls.

From infancy up, chores are coded pink. Looking on the Toys “R” Us website, I see you can buy a Disney Princess My First Kitchen (fuchsia, of course), which is one in the eye for royal privilege. Suck it up, Snow White: you don’t get out of the housekeeping just because your prince has come. Shop the blue aisle and you’ll find the Just Like Home Workshop Deluxe Carry Case Workbench – and this, precisely, is the difference between masculine and feminine work. Masculine work is productive: it makes something, and that something is valuable. Feminine work is reproductive: a cleaned toilet doesn’t stay clean, the used plates stack up in the sink.

The worst part of this con is that women are presumed to take on the shitwork because we want to. Because our natures dictate that there is a satisfaction in wiping an arse with a woman’s hand that men could never feel and money could never match. That fiction is used to justify not only women picking up the slack at home, but also employers paying less for what is seen as traditional “women’s work” – the caring, cleaning roles.

It took a six-year legal battle to secure compensation for the women Birmingham council underpaid for care work over decades. “Don’t get me wrong, the men do work hard, but we did work hard,” said one of the women who brought the action. “And I couldn’t see a lot of them doing what we do. Would they empty a commode, wash somebody down covered in mess, go into a house full of maggots and clean it up? But I’ll tell you what, I would have gone and done a dustman’s job for the day.”

If women are paid less, they’re more financially dependent on the men they live with. If you’re financially dependent, you can’t walk out over your unfair housework burden. No wonder the settlement of shitwork has been so hard to budge. The dream, of course, is that one day men will sack up and start to look after themselves and their own children. Till then, of course women should buy happiness if they can. There’s no guilt in hiring a cleaner – housework is work, so why shouldn’t someone get paid for it? One proviso: every week, spend just a little of the time you’ve purchased plotting how you’ll overthrow patriarchy for good.

Sarah Ditum is a journalist who writes regularly for the Guardian, New Statesman and others. Her website is here.