The "snooper's charter" showed just what the Government is capable of

The proposed "Filter" programme would have been a vast step up in terms of the state's ability to spy on its citizens.

Surveillance technology is of two main types – equipment that keeps tabs on you in the physical world, and processes that track your activity “online” where computers keep a record of your communications and your financial activity.

The physical world is reasonably straightforward to understand. For instance, large numbers of CCTV cameras are installed in public and private spaces in the UK and recordings are kept of what they see. The cameras may be fixed, or a remote operator may be able to choose where they point and how much they zoom in. Newer systems can produce high quality material to enable precise identification of individuals and may also capture audio to accompany the pictures.

“Online” tracking can be equally revealing of people’s actions and movements. Mobile phones continuously interact with nearby cell towers so that incoming calls can be delivered. The phone companies are obliged to retain data about the location of a phone whenever a call is made or received, but if your phone is powered up then they have access to your location at all times and can provide this to law enforcement in real time if this is required.

The records that telephone companies (both fixed line and mobile) keep can be rapidly interrogated to provide lists of calls made from any particular phone, or to any particular phone. These lists will also include the duration of the call and the physical location of the endpoints. Call records can be identified either by the phone number or the phone's unique IMEI device identifier – permitting the tracing of phone activity even when the SIM has been changed.

When interaction is by email instead of by phone then the authorities can still get lists of who is communicating with whom. The email provider is obliged (if they are within the European Union) to keep records of who email was sent to or from, along with timestamp information and exactly how large each email was. Once again, law enforcement regularly requests lists of this email metadata, which can be indexed by sender or receiver.

So far, all of the surveillance and tracking systems have been considered in isolation. One of the provisions of the draft Communications Data Bill was the creation of a data correlation system dubbed a “Filter”. This system would combine enormous amounts of data from different systems, hoping to identify activity that would not have been apparent within a single system.

It is fundamentally inherent to this proposal that Filter data should be collected on everyone’s activity and that this data should be made available en masse from the private companies, the ISPs and telephone companies that provide services, to government systems for the correlation processing. The data won’t necessarily be physically combined on a single system (in fact it would be poor engineering to do this) but it will be logically combined. The original collectors of the data will not have any knowledge of what it is being used for, or possibly even how much data is being processed, so there will be no opportunity for whistle-blowing should excesses occur.

This integrated processing promises to make it much harder for criminals to communicate over a diversity of systems and thereby avoid being tracked – records of phone calls, emails and tweets could be easily combined. But the system’s capabilities go much further than that and the type of “big data” system envisaged will be capable of complex data mining tasks.

To take a fictional example from Charlie Brooker’s National Anthem, the source of a YouTube upload could be identified by the uniqueness of its size and timing; or, closer to real life, the source of an embarrassing leak could be identified by cross-correlating records to pick out exactly who in Whitehall sent out an email whose reception by a journalist triggered an immediate call to the relevant newspaper editor.

The trade-off for these new insights into criminal activity is that more information must be automatically collected about everyone (“just in case”), it must be stored for long periods, measured in years, and it must be handed over to the government operated filter for processing with the inherent assumption that the processing will be necessary, proportionate and authorised. There is tremendous scope for misusing such a system; a police state would relish the opportunity of correlating data on everyone out on the streets for a demonstration, everyone gathering in groups behind closed doors – or just collating a list of everyone who passed on an email containing a subversive joke. The complexity and secrecy of the proposed “Filter” system will make it extremely challenging to ensure that misuse, or just simple “mission creep”, does not occur.

This is an extract of a longer chapter on the technologies of surveillance in from Open Rights Group’s Digital Surveillance report which offers less intrusive alternatives to the Communications Data Bill, or "Snoopers’ Charter", which Nick Clegg blocked last week.

Photograph: Getty Images

Dr Richard Clayton is a security researcher at the University of Cambridge. He has acted as a specialist adviser for Select Committees of both the Lords and Commons in various inquiries into Internet security topics.

Getty
Show Hide image

Leader: The unresolved Eurozone crisis

The continent that once aspired to be a rival superpower to the US is now a byword for decline, and ethnic nationalism and right-wing populism are thriving.

The eurozone crisis was never resolved. It was merely conveniently forgotten. The vote for Brexit, the terrible war in Syria and Donald Trump’s election as US president all distracted from the single currency’s woes. Yet its contradictions endure, a permanent threat to continental European stability and the future cohesion of the European Union.

The resignation of the Italian prime minister Matteo Renzi, following defeat in a constitutional referendum on 4 December, was the moment at which some believed that Europe would be overwhelmed. Among the champions of the No campaign were the anti-euro Five Star Movement (which has led in some recent opinion polls) and the separatist Lega Nord. Opponents of the EU, such as Nigel Farage, hailed the result as a rejection of the single currency.

An Italian exit, if not unthinkable, is far from inevitable, however. The No campaign comprised not only Eurosceptics but pro-Europeans such as the former prime minister Mario Monti and members of Mr Renzi’s liberal-centrist Democratic Party. Few voters treated the referendum as a judgement on the monetary union.

To achieve withdrawal from the euro, the populist Five Star Movement would need first to form a government (no easy task under Italy’s complex multiparty system), then amend the constitution to allow a public vote on Italy’s membership of the currency. Opinion polls continue to show a majority opposed to the return of the lira.

But Europe faces far more immediate dangers. Italy’s fragile banking system has been imperilled by the referendum result and the accompanying fall in investor confidence. In the absence of state aid, the Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, the world’s oldest bank, could soon face ruin. Italy’s national debt stands at 132 per cent of GDP, severely limiting its firepower, and its financial sector has amassed $360bn of bad loans. The risk is of a new financial crisis that spreads across the eurozone.

EU leaders’ record to date does not encourage optimism. Seven years after the Greek crisis began, the German government is continuing to advocate the failed path of austerity. On 4 December, Germany’s finance minister, Wolfgang Schäuble, declared that Greece must choose between unpopular “structural reforms” (a euphemism for austerity) or withdrawal from the euro. He insisted that debt relief “would not help” the immiserated country.

Yet the argument that austerity is unsustainable is now heard far beyond the Syriza government. The International Monetary Fund is among those that have demanded “unconditional” debt relief. Under the current bailout terms, Greece’s interest payments on its debt (roughly €330bn) will continually rise, consuming 60 per cent of its budget by 2060. The IMF has rightly proposed an extended repayment period and a fixed interest rate of 1.5 per cent. Faced with German intransigence, it is refusing to provide further funding.

Ever since the European Central Bank president, Mario Draghi, declared in 2012 that he was prepared to do “whatever it takes” to preserve the single currency, EU member states have relied on monetary policy to contain the crisis. This complacent approach could unravel. From the euro’s inception, economists have warned of the dangers of a monetary union that is unmatched by fiscal and political union. The UK, partly for these reasons, wisely rejected membership, but other states have been condemned to stagnation. As Felix Martin writes on page 15, “Italy today is worse off than it was not just in 2007, but in 1997. National output per head has stagnated for 20 years – an astonishing . . . statistic.”

Germany’s refusal to support demand (having benefited from a fixed exchange rate) undermined the principles of European solidarity and shared prosperity. German unemployment has fallen to 4.1 per cent, the lowest level since 1981, but joblessness is at 23.4 per cent in Greece, 19 per cent in Spain and 11.6 per cent in Italy. The youngest have suffered most. Youth unemployment is 46.5 per cent in Greece, 42.6 per cent in Spain and 36.4 per cent in Italy. No social model should tolerate such waste.

“If the euro fails, then Europe fails,” the German chancellor, Angela Merkel, has often asserted. Yet it does not follow that Europe will succeed if the euro survives. The continent that once aspired to be a rival superpower to the US is now a byword for decline, and ethnic nationalism and right-wing populism are thriving. In these circumstances, the surprise has been not voters’ intemperance, but their patience.

This article first appeared in the 08 December 2016 issue of the New Statesman, Brexit to Trump