How Labour councils are backing small businesses

The party's councillors are demonstrating the results that an active government strategy can achieve for business, jobs and growth.

While the Labour Party is out of office nationally, there is still much we can do to support Britain’s small businesses, and we take this responsibility very seriously.

Across the country, Labour councils and councillors are often the first point of access for small businesses seeking support. There are nearly 650,000 businesses active in areas covered by Labour authorities and this figure is set to grow as we seek to win control of more councils this May.

Small businesses are the lifeblood of our economy, with nearly 90 per cent of people moving from unemployment into employment doing so through a small business. If we help these businesses to survive and thrive we will be taking a huge step towards tackling the unemployment crises as well.

In his first conference speech as leader, Ed Miliband expressed his determination for Labour to become the party of small business for just these reasons. We want to see more people setting up and working in business and believe that they reflect our values as the engines of social mobility and challengers of the status quo.

Labour councils across the country are playing a huge role in demonstrating how the next One Nation Labour government will champion and support small businesses and encourage growth in every area.

This is why I have recently published a report - Labour Councils: Backing Business - showcasing some of this excellent and innovative work. The report was produced in association with the Labour Group on the Local Government Association and features a report from every region of England and Wales, including ones by unitary, district and second tier authorities. This builds on last year’s launch of the Labour Councillors Business Network – bringing together Labour councillors from across the country to share ideas, disseminate best practice and develop new thinking.

Nationally, Labour are looking at how government can use procurement smartly to deliver for British business. When one in every seven pounds of GDP is spent by government it is the largest lever we can pull to support UK firms. The report demonstrates how Labour councils are already pulling this lever locally.

Vale of Glamorgan and Merthyr Tydfil Councils describe how they have developed a smartphone app to alert local small businesses to new tenders and explain the process to them and City of Manchester Council explain how they have re-written their tender guidelines to boost local jobs and businesses and developed a website portal for local businesses to use.

Small businesses often tell me that it is hard to find young people with the skills they need and the Labour Small Business Taskforce is looking at how we can equip people leaving education with these skills. These examples show how constructive partnerships between local authorities and businesses can help to deliver this.

Reading Council describe how they secured funding from the O2 Future Fund to develop a "one-stop shop" smart phone app and related social media tools to match the right young people with the right businesses. Stoke-on-Trent’s JET scheme is also highlighted. This connects businesses and unemployed people and continues to support both parties once they have been placed together. Plymouth Council also describe the success of their 1000 Club which encouraged 1,000 local companies to employ a local young person each. Partnership between councils and business can also have many other positive results.

Durham County Council describes how it persuaded Hitachi, a large local employer, to incorporate local small businesses into the local supply chain. Kirklees Council sets out its Innovation Voucher Scheme which offers local businesses grants to improve their efficiency and has lead to rapid growth amongst local firms and the highest rate of private-sector job creation in the West Midlands. The London Borough of Merton reports on how it secured funding from a new major supermarket arriving in the area for shop improvement grants for smaller neighbouring shops.

The report also highlights the importance of having a clear vision and brand to attract inward investment, with Stevenage Borough Council describing how their inward investment campaign “Where Imagination Takes Hold” reached a television audience of six million people. Nottingham City Council also describes how it established an effective cluster of businesses in the new technology sector, called the “Creative Quarter”. This is now a rapidly growing small business hub.

These reports, along with further short contributions from over twenty other Labour councils in the pamphlet, are fantastic evidence of the results that an active government strategy can achieve for business, jobs and growth. They represent a gold mine of ideas for other councils across the country and will also help Labour groups seeking to win office to develop strong manifestos with sound business policies.

Toby Perkins is Labour MP for Chesterfield and shadow minister for small business

Toby Perkins is Labour MP for Chesterfield and shadow minister for small business

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Inside Big Ben: why the world’s most famous clock will soon lose its bong

Every now and then, even the most famous of clocks need a bit of care.

London is soon going to lose one of its most familiar sounds when the world-famous Big Ben falls silent for repairs. The “bonging” chimes that have marked the passing of time for Londoners since 1859 will fall silent for months beginning in 2017 as part of a three-year £29m conservation project.

Of course, “Big Ben” is the nickname of the Great Bell and the bell itself is not in bad shape – even though it does have a huge crack in it.

The bell weighs nearly 14 tonnes and it cracked in 1859 when it was first bonged with a hammer that was way too heavy.

The crack was never repaired. Instead the bell was rotated one eighth of a turn and a lighter (200kg) hammer was installed. The cracked bell has a characteristic sound which we have all grown to love.

Big Ben strikes. UK Parliament.

Instead, it is the Elizabeth Tower (1859) and the clock mechanism (1854), designed by Denison and Airy, that need attention.

Any building or machine needs regular maintenance – we paint our doors and windows when they need it and we repair or replace our cars quite routinely. It is convenient to choose a day when we’re out of the house to paint the doors, or when we don’t need the car to repair the brakes. But a clock just doesn’t stop – especially not a clock as iconic as the Great Clock at the Palace of Westminster.

Repairs to the tower are long overdue. There is corrosion damage to the cast iron roof and to the belfry structure which keeps the bells in place. There is water damage to the masonry and condensation problems will be addressed, too. There are plumbing and electrical works to be done for a lift to be installed in one of the ventilation shafts, toilet facilities and the fitting of low-energy lighting.

Marvel of engineering

The clock mechanism itself is remarkable. In its 162-year history it has only had one major breakdown. In 1976 the speed regulator for the chimes broke and the mechanism sped up to destruction. The resulting damage took months to repair.

The weights that drive the clock are, like the bells and hammers, unimaginably huge. The “drive train” that keeps the pendulum swinging and that turns the hands is driven by a weight of about 100kg. Two other weights that ring the bells are each over a tonne. If any of these weights falls out of control (as in the 1976 incident), they could do a lot of damage.

The pendulum suspension spring is especially critical because it holds up the huge pendulum bob which weighs 321kg. The swinging pendulum releases the “escapement” every two seconds which then turns the hands on the clock’s four faces. If you look very closely, you will see that the minute hand doesn’t move smoothly but it sits still most of the time, only moving on each tick by 1.5cm.

The pendulum swings back and forth 21,600 times a day. That’s nearly 8m times a year, bending the pendulum spring. Like any metal, it has the potential to suffer from fatigue. The pendulum needs to be lifted out of the clock so that the spring can be closely inspected.

The clock derives its remarkable accuracy in part from the temperature compensation which is built into the construction of the pendulum. This was yet another of John Harrison’s genius ideas (you probably know him from longitude fame). He came up with the solution of using metals of differing temperature expansion coefficient so that the pendulum doesn’t change in length as the temperature changes with the seasons.

In the Westminster clock, the pendulum shaft is made of concentric tubes of steel and zinc. A similar construction is described for the clock in Trinity College Cambridge and near perfect temperature compensation can be achieved. But zinc is a ductile metal and the tube deforms with time under the heavy load of the 321kg pendulum bob. This “creeping” will cause the temperature compensation to jam up and become less effective.

So stopping the clock will also be a good opportunity to dismantle the pendulum completely and to check that the zinc tube is sliding freely. This in itself is a few days' work.

What makes it tick

But the truly clever bit of this clock is the escapement. All clocks have one - it’s what makes the clock tick, quite literally. Denison developed his new gravity escapement especially for the Westminster clock. It decouples the driving force of the falling weight from the periodic force that maintains the motion of the pendulum. To this day, the best tower clocks in England use the gravity escapement leading to remarkable accuracy – better even than that of your quartz crystal wrist watch.

In Denison’s gravity escapement, the “tick” is the impact of the “legs” of the escapement colliding with hardened steel seats. Each collision causes microscopic damage which, accumulated over millions of collisions per year, causes wear and tear affecting the accuracy of the clock. It is impossible to inspect the escapement without stopping the clock. Part of the maintenance proposed during this stoppage is a thorough overhaul of the escapement and the other workings of the clock.

The Westminster clock is a remarkable icon for London and for England. For more than 150 years it has reminded us of each hour, tirelessly. That’s what I love about clocks – they seem to carry on without a fuss. But every now and then even the most famous of clocks need a bit of care. After this period of pampering, “Big Ben” ought to be set for another 100 or so years of trouble-free running.

The Conversation

Hugh Hunt is a Reader in Engineering Dynamics and Vibration at the University of Cambridge.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.