Only pets win prizes

Observations on Westminster

In politics, as in so many walks of life, it takes only a few people to misbehave to spoil it for everyone. So have some sympathy for the rumpled backbencher whose presence generates little attention in Westminster or at home, whose majority has dwindled so far that it now resembles the share price of a British car manufacturer. Pity him, for the one event of the year meant to give him a whiff of glamour has been snatched away.

The annual House Magazine Parliamentary Awards are just like the Oscars, but with Margaret Beckett rather than Natalie Portman, and are a chance for our politicians to congratulate themselves. Voted for by MPs, the awards are usually an occasion on which backbenchers can exercise individual judgement without fear of the whips’ recriminations. But not this summer. No. This summer they’ve been naughty.

Gerry Murray, the magazine’s publisher, has written to MPs and peers to let them know the awards will not take place on their usual July date. It would, he told them, “be inappropriate to ask parliamentarians to consider candidates for the awards at this time, when the pressing matters of implementing reforms and electing a new Speaker take priority”. In other words, there will be no party until they all learn to behave.

Poor backbenchers. Now there is nothing to dream of when dealing with the hand-delivered missives from deranged constituents. Nothing to hang on for when they appear on local radio, defending some disastrous party policy that represents everything they went into politics to prevent. They know what awaits them at the election. This time next year they will have only the souvenirs of their working life: a chipped teacup stolen from the terrace, a never-to-be-updated entry in Who’s Who.

Still, they would be the first to accept that the awards cannot happen right now. To whom could parliament give a gong in this climate? Everything would have to go to Vince Cable, except perhaps a lifetime award for Chris Mullin as he retires. Anything else, and the public would storm Westminster. As each party desperately tries to outdo the others’ protestations of remorse and reform, Westminster is beginning to resemble Salem, its occupants crying out that the devil took over their bodies and then pointing to the member of their party currently unstable enough to shoulder their blame. MPs hope the crisis is temporary. Maybe it won’t even take that long for things to return to normal. Sure, the public clamours for change, but in a few months people will have forgotten all about it. Give that nice Mr Martin a peerage. He took one for the rest of us. The dim herd won’t notice.

Perhaps the most telling thing about the awards is that they have not been cancelled, merely postponed until the autumn. By then, the strange fever will have passed; parliament will be back in business and all the talk of radical reform quietly brushed back under the carpet. Our representatives can nominate those who acquitted themselves best in the expenses crisis; the ballgowns will come out, and the fun will continue. Unless, of course, we don’t forget at all. And we don’t let them forget.

Alastair Harper is Head of Politics for Green Alliance UK

This article first appeared in the 20 July 2009 issue of the New Statesman, King and Country

Show Hide image

Q&A: What are tax credits and how do they work?

All you need to know about the government's plan to cut tax credits.

What are tax credits?

Tax credits are payments made regularly by the state into bank accounts to support families with children, or those who are in low-paid jobs. There are two types of tax credit: the working tax credit and the child tax credit.

What are they for?

To redistribute income to those less able to get by, or to provide for their children, on what they earn.

Are they similar to tax relief?

No. They don’t have much to do with tax. They’re more of a welfare thing. You don’t need to be a taxpayer to receive tax credits. It’s just that, unlike other benefits, they are based on the tax year and paid via the tax office.

Who is eligible?

Anyone aged over 16 (for child tax credits) and over 25 (for working tax credits) who normally lives in the UK can apply for them, depending on their income, the hours they work, whether they have a disability, and whether they pay for childcare.

What are their circumstances?

The more you earn, the less you are likely to receive. Single claimants must work at least 16 hours a week. Let’s take a full-time worker: if you work at least 30 hours a week, you are generally eligible for working tax credits if you earn less than £13,253 a year (if you’re single and don’t have children), or less than £18,023 (jointly as part of a couple without children but working at least 30 hours a week).

And for families?

A family with children and an income below about £32,200 can claim child tax credit. It used to be that the more children you have, the more you are eligible to receive – but George Osborne in his most recent Budget has limited child tax credit to two children.

How much money do you receive?

Again, this depends on your circumstances. The basic payment for a single claimant, or a joint claim by a couple, of working tax credits is £1,940 for the tax year. You can then receive extra, depending on your circumstances. For example, single parents can receive up to an additional £2,010, on top of the basic £1,940 payment; people who work more than 30 hours a week can receive up to an extra £810; and disabled workers up to £2,970. The average award of tax credit is £6,340 per year. Child tax credit claimants get £545 per year as a flat payment, plus £2,780 per child.

How many people claim tax credits?

About 4.5m people – the vast majority of these people (around 4m) have children.

How much does it cost the taxpayer?

The estimation is that they will cost the government £30bn in April 2015/16. That’s around 14 per cent of the £220bn welfare budget, which the Tories have pledged to cut by £12bn.

Who introduced this system?

New Labour. Gordon Brown, when he was Chancellor, developed tax credits in his first term. The system as we know it was established in April 2003.

Why did they do this?

To lift working people out of poverty, and to remove the disincentives to work believed to have been inculcated by welfare. The tax credit system made it more attractive for people depending on benefits to work, and gave those in low-paid jobs a helping hand.

Did it work?

Yes. Tax credits’ biggest achievement was lifting a record number of children out of poverty since the war. The proportion of children living below the poverty line fell from 35 per cent in 1998/9 to 19 per cent in 2012/13.

So what’s the problem?

Well, it’s a bit of a weird system in that it lets companies pay wages that are too low to live on without the state supplementing them. Many also criticise tax credits for allowing the minimum wage – also brought in by New Labour – to stagnate (ie. not keep up with the rate of inflation). David Cameron has called the system of taxing low earners and then handing them some money back via tax credits a “ridiculous merry-go-round”.

Then it’s a good thing to scrap them?

It would be fine if all those low earners and families struggling to get by would be given support in place of tax credits – a living wage, for example.

And that’s why the Tories are introducing a living wage...

That’s what they call it. But it’s not. The Chancellor announced in his most recent Budget a new minimum wage of £7.20 an hour for over-25s, rising to £9 by 2020. He called this the “national living wage” – it’s not, because the current living wage (which is calculated by the Living Wage Foundation, and currently non-compulsory) is already £9.15 in London and £7.85 in the rest of the country.

Will people be better off?

No. Quite the reverse. The IFS has said this slightly higher national minimum wage will not compensate working families who will be subjected to tax credit cuts; it is arithmetically impossible. The IFS director, Paul Johnson, commented: “Unequivocally, tax credit recipients in work will be made worse off by the measures in the Budget on average.” It has been calculated that 3.2m low-paid workers will have their pay packets cut by an average of £1,350 a year.

Could the government change its policy to avoid this?

The Prime Minister and his frontbenchers have been pretty stubborn about pushing on with the plan. In spite of criticism from all angles – the IFS, campaigners, Labour, The Sun – Cameron has ruled out a review of the policy in the Autumn Statement, which is on 25 November. But there is an alternative. The chair of parliament’s Work & Pensions Select Committee and Labour MP Frank Field has proposed what he calls a “cost neutral” tweak to the tax credit cuts.

How would this alternative work?

Currently, if your income is less than £6,420, you will receive the maximum amount of tax credits. That threshold is called the gross income threshold. Field wants to introduce a second gross income threshold of £13,100 (what you earn if you work 35 hours a week on minimum wage). Those earning a salary between those two thresholds would have their tax credits reduced at a slower rate on whatever they earn above £6,420 up to £13,100. The percentage of what you earn above the basic threshold that is deducted from your tax credits is called the taper rate, and it is currently at 41 per cent. In contrast to this plan, the Tories want to halve the income threshold to £3,850 a year and increase the taper rate to 48 per cent once you hit that threshold, which basically means you lose more tax credits, faster, the more you earn.

When will the tax credit cuts come in?

They will be imposed from April next year, barring a u-turn.

Anoosh Chakelian is deputy web editor at the New Statesman.