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In with the in-crowd

The appointment of a pro-Israel hawk has, to some, undermined Obama's call for a new politics. Or ma

A year ago, Barack Obama's campaign organised a rather unusual event. Undecided New Hampshire voters were invited to a hotel for a gathering of a half dozen of Obama's foreign policy advisers, an illustrious and eclectic bunch that included a former secretary of the navy and Samantha Power, the Irish journalist and authority on genocide who would later exile herself from the campaign after calling Hillary Clinton a "monster" in an interview with The Scotsman. One by one, they talked about Obama and his plans for the world. Finally, the candidate himself appeared and held forth on his own. It was a cross between a graduate seminar and a travelling roadshow - Come Behold Barack Obama and his Astute Advisers Who Can Attest to His Judgement Even in the Absence of Much Experience!

The scene was meant to assure voters worried about the rookie senator's grasp on world affairs, but it also reflected something fundamental about Obama: he likes to surround himself with very smart people. This might not seem so remarkable, except that it hasn't really been the case for this past decade in Washington, where George W Bush mixed unquestionably sharp-minded figures such as Dick Cheney and Karl Rove with obvious cronies. Obama, by contrast, fetishises expertise in a way reminiscent of Franklin D Roosevelt's New Deal and John F Kennedy's "best and brightest". Obama has said that what he enjoyed more than almost anything about his promotion to the US Senate was the ability to call up authorities of all kinds for their insight. Debates within his staff tend to consist of him sitting or stretched out on his office couch, listening intently and pressing those in the room in Socratic fashion before making his decision. Running for president, Obama aimed even higher. After meeting the former Federal Reserve Board chairman Paul Volcker last year, Obama began reaching out to the 81-year-old economics giant (he's 6ft 7in) for advice, a resource that came in handy as the markets crumbled. When Obama appeared at his first press conference as President-elect last week, flanked by his 17-member "Transition Economic Advisory Board," there was Volcker towering over a group that also included the Google CEO Eric Schmidt, the former Treasury secretary and Harvard president Larry Summers, and, looped in by conference call for the preceding meeting, the mega-investor Warren Buffett.

The challenge for Obama is that there is only room in the inner sanctum for so many people. The most influential can be grouped into a few categories - there are the veterans of his tight-knit campaign team who will follow him to Washington, including the laconic southerner likely to be his press secretary, Robert Gibbs, and the mustachioed Chicago newsman-turned-political guru, David Axelrod. There are other Chicago confidantes who acted as travelling companions and gatekeepers during the campaign and will likely play an equivalent role in the White House, most notably Valerie Jarrett, a lawyer, businesswoman and fixture of Chicago's African-American elite. There are longtime denizens of DC's Democratic establishment who embraced Obama early on, including Tom Daschle, the soft-spoken former Senate majority leader from South Dakota, from whom Obama has absorbed some of his best Senate and campaign aides, and Greg Craig, a lawyer who defended Bill Clinton during his impeachment and also issued a damning indictment of Hillary's foreign policy embellishments during the primaries. There are governors who share Obama's conciliatory and earnest manner and could well end up in key cabinet posts, such as Kathleen Sebelius of Kansas and Tim Kaine of Virginia.

And presiding over it all, for now, are two heavyweights from the Clinton era. Leading the transition process is John Podesta, who served as Bill Clinton's final chief of staff and has since headed a liberal think tank that was a kind of Democratic government in waiting; and, assigned as Obama's chief of staff, is Rahm Emanuel, a young Turk in the Clinton White House who, after making millions in finance, was elected to Congress from Illinois. Emanuel is uncommonly colourful by the standards of today's capital, a former ballet dancer and civilian volunteer in the Israeli Defense Forces who is notorious for his profanity and pugnacity. (In a 2005 tribute, Obama joked that the teenaged accident that cost Emanuel part of his middle finger had "rendered him practically mute" and that Emanuel had composed a ballet based on Machiavelli's The Prince, with a lot of "kicks below the waist".)

Emanuel would seem in some ways to undercut Obama's call for a "new politics" - a Clinton holdover whose flair for the dramatic strays from the Obama team's buttoned-down tendencies. But his selection is a sign that, for all of the President-elect's high-mindedness, he knows how good it is to have people like Emanuel in your corner.

I observed this most recently at the convention in Denver, where a colleague asked Emanuel what he made of Obama's acceptance speech. In characteristically profane fashion, Emanuel praised the speech for its tough retorts to John McCain's attacks. And for emphasis, as he spoke, he tapped my colleague in the chest repeatedly and with perhaps more force than strictly necessary. Emanuel assures that for all its intellectualism, Obama's White House will not go soft.

This article first appeared in the 17 November 2008 issue of the New Statesman, Obamania

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Puffins in peril

Britain’s best-loved seabird is vulnerable to global extinction.

The boatmen helped us scramble ashore and soon there were 50 people wandering on an uninhab­ited slab of sea-battered dolerite called Staple Island. It is one of the National Trust-owned Farne Islands in Northumberland and among England’s most spectacular wildlife locations. There are 100,000 pairs of breeding seabirds here and they were everywhere: at our feet, overhead, across every rock face. The stench of guano was overwhelming.

While the birds seemed to be boundless, the human beings converged on the grassy knoll where the local star attraction resides. It’s the creature that adorns the boat company’s publicity and is emblazoned on the National Trust’s website for the island, the bird that possesses what the poet Norman MacCaig called the “mad, clever clown’s beak”: the pint-sized, parrot-faced puffin.

The British love for this creature is so intense that it is, in essence, the robin redbreast of the sea. Nearly all of its breeding colonies around our coast are tourist attractions. Just across the water, along the shore from Staple Island, is the town of Amble, which holds an annual festival devoted to the puffin. From Lundy in Devon and Skomer in Pembrokeshire to the Isle of May off the Fife coast, or Fair Isle in the Shetlands, trips to puffin colonies are frequent, sometimes daily, events.

“Every tourist shop on these islands sells puffin merchandise – knitwear patterns, tumblers, carvings, coasters, cuddly toys, clothes and, of course, puffin hats,” Helen Moncrieff, the area manager in Shetland for the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), told me.

While the love affair is unquestionable, what seems in doubt is our ability to help the bird now that it is in trouble. Fair Isle once supported a puffin colony of 20,000 birds. In less than three decades, that number has halved. Similar declines have been reported at Britain’s most important puffin site on St Kilda, Scotland, where millions are said to have bred. Now there are fewer than 130,000 pairs, half the total recorded as recently as the 1970s.

The national picture is alarming but the news from elsewhere is even worse. Continental Europe holds more than 90 per cent – five million pairs – of the global total of Atlantic puffins but they are shared primarily between three countries: Denmark (the Faroe Islands), Iceland and Norway. Across this subarctic region, losses have been estimated at 33 per cent since 1979, when monitoring began. But the most striking figure comes from a colony on Røst, Norway, where there has been a fall over this period from nearly 1.5 million pairs to 285,000.

The Westman Islands off the south coast of Iceland hold a substantial proportion of the country’s puffins. Since 2005, breeding success there has been almost nil, and a similar failure has recurred on the Faroe Islands for more than a decade. In both places, where hunting puffins was once a staple of cultural life, catchers today have initiated a self-imposed moratorium.

Puffins are long-lived species and a life­span of between 20 and 30 years is not unusual, yet Euan Dunn, principal marine adviser to the RSPB, explains the implications of persistent breeding failure. “Puffins on Shetland or the Westmans may go on attempting to breed for years, even decades, but eventually all those old adult birds will die off and, if they haven’t reproduced, then the numbers will start to plunge.”

BirdLife International, a conservation network that classifies the status of birds worldwide, has reached the same conclusion. It judges that the Atlantic puffin is likely to decline by between 50 and 79 per cent by 2065. The nation’s most beloved seabird has been declared a species that is vulnerable to global extinction.

To unpick the story of puffin losses, marine ecologists have examined the bird’s oceanic ecosystem and looked particularly at changes in the status of a cold-water zooplankton called Calanus finmarchicus. This seemingly insignificant, shrimp-like organism plays a crucial role in North Atlantic biodiversity and has experienced a huge decline as sea temperatures have risen steadily since the 1980s. While the decline of the finmarchicus coincided with swelling numbers of a close relative, this other zooplankton species is less abundant and nutritious.

As the finmarchicus has suffered, so, too, has one of its main predators, the lesser sand eel. And it is this formerly superabundant fish that is the staple food of puffins in many areas of the Atlantic. At the root of the disruption to marine life are the hydra-headed effects of climate change.

Though no one disputes that an important shift is under way in the sea areas of northern Britain and beyond, not everyone agrees that the present puffin situation is a crisis. A leading British expert, Mike Harris, thinks it is premature to designate the bird an endangered species. There are still millions of puffins and, he says, “We need numbers to plummet before we even start to assume that things are terminal.”

Similarly, Bergur Olsen, one of the foremost biologists studying puffins in the Faroe Islands, believes that the talk of extinction is over the top. “The food situation may change and puffins may well adapt to new prey, and then their numbers will stabilise and perhaps increase,” he says.

***

On Staple Island, the extinction designation does appear bizarre. The Farne Island puffin population has increased by 8 per cent since 2008 and there are now 40,000 pairs. This success mirrors a wider stability among puffin colonies of the North and Irish Seas. The distinction in feeding ecology which may explain the birds’ varying fortunes is that, in the southern parts of the range, puffins can prey on sprats when sand eels are scarce. Sprats appear to have suffered none of the disruption that assails the other fish.

But Dunn says it is important to look at the whole picture. “It’s fantastic that puffins are doing well in places like the Farnes, but remember: Britain holds less than 10 per cent of the world total. Also, the declines that have beset puffins in Shetland and St Kilda are even worse for other seabirds.”

The numbers of a silver-winged gull called the kittiwake have fallen by 90 per cent in Shetland and St Kilda since 2000 and by 80 per cent in the Orkneys in just ten years. Shetland’s guillemot numbers have also halved, and the shag, a relative of the cormorant, has experienced falls of over 80 per cent on many islands since the 1970s – 98 per cent, on Foula. Most troubling is the fate of the Arctic skua, which feeds mainly on fish it steals from other seabirds and is reliant on their successes. Its declines are so severe that Dunn fears its eventual loss as a breeding species in Britain.

While there is disagreement about what to call the puffin predicament, there is unanimity on one issue: much of the data that informs the discussion in Britain is out of date. All of these seabirds, which are of global importance, have been monitored decade by decade since the 1970s. Yet the most recent big audit of our cliffs and offshore islands was concluded in 2000. The full census data is now 16 years old. The organisation that underwrites this work is the Joint Nature Conservation Committee; it is sponsored by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, which has suffered deep budget cuts since the 2008 financial crisis. There is no certainty that another comprehensive census will be mounted any time soon.

“Much is made on wildlife television of how special these islands are for wildlife and how much we care about it,” Dunn says. “In the case of our seabirds, one of those claims is indisputably true. Britain holds populations of some species that are of worldwide significance. But if we lack even basic information on those birds and how they’re faring, especially at a time when our seas are in such flux, what message does that send about how much this country cares? And how can we ever act effectively?”

The plight of the puffin is shedding light on the fortunes of our marine wildlife generally and the shifting condition of our oceans as a result of rising carbon-dioxide levels. Now, puffin politics is also starting to show
this government’s indifference to nature.

This article first appeared in the 28 July 2016 issue of the New Statesman, Summer Double Issue