The decline of Israel’s left

Nearly 30 years ago, 400,000 Israelis marched in protest over the injustices of the 1982 war in Leba

One night eight years ago in Ramallah, on the West Bank, a group of Israeli peace activists gathered at Yasser Arafat's home to stage a sit-in. Ariel Sharon, Israel's hardline prime minister, was suspected of having despatched a team to kill the Palestinian leader, and the activists saw their plan as the only way to deter the assassins. Through the night, they talked with Arafat's bodyguards, trying to think about anything but the important things. In the end, no assassins came and a crisis was averted.

Adam Keller was one of the Israeli activists at Arafat's house that night. In the years since, he has pursued peace tirelessly through the group Gush Shalom ("Peace Bloc"), but now he is running low on optimism. "The moderate, mainstream left is broken," he says, in his tiny sitting room in southern Tel Aviv. These days, Gush Shalom cannot even scrape together the funds to print the newsletter it used to publish each month. "Israeli public opinion has given up on peace," he tells me.

If there is hope for Israel's liberals, it lies in East Jerusalem. Each week, under the watchful eyes of riot police armed with assault rifles, Israeli activists bang drums and blow whistles to protest against the eviction of Palestinian families from their homes by Jewish "settlers". The police's heavy-handed response has swelled this small pocket of resistance to a couple of thousand people. Yet nearly 30 years ago, as many as 400,000 Israelis marched in fury at the massacre of Palestinians at Sabra and Shatila refugee camps during the war in Lebanon. In 1995, thousands took to the streets after the then prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, Israel's best hope for peace in years, was assassinated by a right-wing renegade at a public rally.

Many Israelis have been worn down by fruitless talks and promises. "There's such total indifference," says Daniel Levy of the New America Foundation, a Washington think tank. "Support for a two-state solution doesn't mean anyone is willing to do anything about it."

At a Peace Now rally in Tel Aviv against the right-wing coalition government of Binyamin Netanyahu and Ehud Barak, a rock band attempts to lift the mood of a downbeat crowd. "These are dangerous people with dangerous politics - taking us down a path of no return," Peace Now's secretary general, Yariv Oppenheimer, shouts to scattered applause. "Israel was a wonderful place, but the government
destroyed everything," says Nitza Stern, a protester in her fifties.

The government's lacklustre efforts to relaunch peace talks with the Palestinians and limit the construction of Jewish settlements on the West Bank have angered liberals, and recently Netanyahu has dismayed even his supporters. By announcing the construction of new homes in East Jerusalem during a visit by the US vice-president, Joe Biden, he has brought relations between Tel Aviv and Washington to their lowest point in years. As a result, his party, Likud, has suffered in the opinion polls. But it retains its core support. Analysts say Israel's electorate has shifted rightwards following a wave of Russian immigration and a population explosion among the ultra-Orthodox community. The left-wing Meretz, once the third-largest party, now holds just three out of 120 seats in the Knesset.

Partner for peace

Many blame the left's demise on Barak. When he first brought the centre-left Labour Party to power in 1999, hopes for peace were high. But the state he offered Arafat fell far short of Palestinian expectations, and he announced that Israel had "no partner for peace". Months after Barak's election, the second Palestinian intifada began. Faced with failure, many began to turn away from the left, and Barak's decision to form an alliance with Netanyahu's conservative government last year did little to bolster his popularity among liberals. "Barak is the serial murderer of the Israeli peace camp," Levy says.

But some argue that the damage was done years earlier. Israel's so-called left was busy with nation-building and never provided an adequate explanation of what it meant to be a progressive Israeli state.

“The left had no ideological response to the question put by the right," says the political scientist Ze'ev Sternhell, a member of the peace camp who escaped with light injuries after a right-wing settler planted a makeshift bomb outside his Jerusalem home two years ago. "Why was it legitimate to settle the upper Galilee, the Lebanese border and the Jordan Valley, and why wasn't it legal and good to settle the West Bank?"

Following the UN report on the Gaza war of December 2008 and January 2009 which accused Israel of war crimes, some commentators in the country are questioning their values. Meanwhile, the right-wing Im Tirtzu group has launched a media smear campaign against the New Israel Fund (which offers funding to NGOs challenging the behaviour of Israel's security forces), featuring a caricature of the fund's head, Naomi Chazan, sprouting a horn.

Moderate Israelis are understandably worried. But they may yet see some redress. Dismayed by the hardline stance of some cabinet members in response to US demands, Labour is threatening to pull out of the coalition government unless the centrist Kadima party is brought in. The intransigence of Likud's right wing may yet be the catalyst for a coalition that would otherwise have been unthinkable.

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This article first appeared in the 19 April 2010 issue of the New Statesman, The big choice

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Why is the government charging more women for selling sex but turning a blind eye to buyers?

Since 2013, the number of women charged for selling sex gone up while the number of men charged for buying it has gone down.

It’s no surprise that prostitution policy is an area rarely visited by our legislators. It’s politically charged - a place where the need to prevent exploitation seemingly clashes head on with notions of liberal freedom; where there are few simple answers, a disputed evidence base, and no votes.

There’s also little evidence to suggest that MPs are different from the rest of the population - where one-in-ten men have purchased sex. It is little wonder therefore that our report on how the law should change, published in 2014, was the first major cross-party intervention on the subject in twenty years.

Some take the view that by removing all legal constraints, it will make the inherently exploitative trade of prostitution, safer. It’s not just me that questions this approach, though I accept that - equally - there’s no consensus that my preferred measure of criminalising the purchase of sex, while decriminalising the sale, would fundamentally change the scale of the problem.

Where all sides come together, however, is in the desire to see women diverted from the law courts. It is still possible for women (and it still is women; prostitution remains highly genderised) to go to prison for offences related to prostitution. Today, in 2015.

The total number of prosecutions for all prostitution offences in England and Wales has been decreasing since 2010, but not in a uniform fashion. This does not reflect a reduction in the size of the trade, or the violent nature of it.

There were once consistently more prosecutions for kerb crawling, profiting, and control of prostitution. But since 2013, there have been more prosecutions for soliciting or loitering than for profit from prostitution and kerb crawling each year.

In simple terms, offences committed by men with choice, freedom and money in their pocket are having a blind eye turned to them, while women are being targeted - and this trend is accelerating. In the law courts, and in prosecutions, it is the most vulnerable party in the transaction, who is taking the burden of criminality.

Take on-street sex buying as an example. In 2013-14 just 237 prosecutions were brought for kerb crawling, but there were 553 - more than twice as many - for loitering and soliciting.

There is a similar pattern in the 2014/15 figures: 227 charges for kerb crawling reached court, while 456 prosecutions were initiated against those who were selling sex. Just 83 prosecutions for control of prostitution, or ‘pimping’, were brought in that same year.

These are men and women on the same street. It takes a high level of liberal delusion to be convinced that prostitution is caused by a surge of women wishing to sell sex, rather than men who wish to buy it. And yet women who sell sex are the ones being targeted in our law courts, not the men that create the demand in the first place.

This situation even goes against the Crown Prosecution Service’s (CPS) own guidance. They say:

“Prostitution is addressed as sexual exploitation within the overall CPS Violence Against Women strategy because of its gendered nature… At the same time, those who abuse and exploit those involved in prostitution should be rigorously investigated and prosecuted, and enforcement activity focused on those who create the demand for on-street sex, such as kerb crawlers.”

Why then, is this happening? For the same reason it always does - in our criminal justice system stigmatised, poor women are valued less than moneyed, professional men.

My debate in Parliament today raises these issues directly with the government ministers responsible. But to be honest, the prosecution-bias against women in the courts isn’t the problem; merely a symptom of it. This bias will only be tackled when the law reflects the inherent harm of the trade to women, rather than sending the mixed signals of today.

That’s why I welcome the work of the End Demand Alliance, composed of over 40 organisations working to end the demand that fuels sex trafficking and prostitution, advocating the adoption of the Sex Buyer Law throughout the UK.

This would criminalise paying for sex, while decriminalising its sale and providing support and exiting services for those exploited by prostitution. Regardless of these big changes in the law, I don’t see how anyone can support the current state of affairs where there are more prosecutions brought against women than men involved in prostitution.

The authorities are targeting women because they're easier to arrest and prosecute. It goes against their own guidance, common sense and natural justice.
And it needs to stop.

Gavin Shuker is MP for Luton South and chair of the All Party Group on Prostitution and the Global Sex Trade.