George Osborne's phrasing on the welfare cuts is sly

Martha Gill's Irrational Animals column.

The welfare cuts set out in the Spending Review have been greeted with more than a little cynicism. The twisted stats were pointed out today by Daniel Knowles and Zoe Williams, and the ironies by Ellie Mae O'Hagan - but it's also worth looking a bit at the sly phrasing.

Words like "scrounging", "handout", "feckless" have burrowed fairly deep into the way we talk about welfare, so yesterday Osborne was able to get away with these two phrases - "something for nothing culture", and "if you are not prepared to learn English, your benefits will be cut". The tone is moralising. He's not talking about all benefit claimants, mind, just the ones who don't deserve them. Which, incidently, are exactly those the government can't afford to support this time round.

This kind of moral justification is especially underhand because it is effective. We like believing people get what they deserve. The thought that bad things happen to good people is so abhorrent to us that the quickest way out is often to blame the victim for their own misfortune, and we do so wherever we can.

A classic set of experiments by Melvin Lerner demonstrates this. 72 female volunteers were made to watch a woman having a "learning experience", unaware that she was an actress. As they watched, the volunteer made a mistake, and seemed to recieve a painful electric shock. The "learning" continued in this way.

Some volunteers were given the option of stopping the torture, and they did, but others were not given that option. They were instead given a number of different elaborations on the victim's plight. One was that she would be afterwards rewarded in cash for her suffering, another that she was suffering for no reason, another that she was suffering for the good of the rest of them - a matyr.

The group was then asked to judge the victim. The results were shocking. The "martyr" recieved the worst reviews - she was despised by the group. The victim who got no money for her pain did little better. The subject who got cash deserved it - she had learned well. But it was the "saved" learner who did best of all - she was innocent, and unfortunate, and deserved to be saved. It seemed that the audience needed the victim to match her punishment.

We have a touching belief that the world is just and like to look away rather than be shown otherwise. So let's not let go of that cynicism just yet - in fact it's probably time to ramp it up a bit.

George Osborne. Photograph: Getty Images

Martha Gill writes the weekly Irrational Animals column. You can follow her on Twitter here: @Martha_Gill.

Photo: Getty
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The Prevent strategy needs a rethink, not a rebrand

A bad policy by any other name is still a bad policy.

Yesterday the Home Affairs Select Committee published its report on radicalization in the UK. While the focus of the coverage has been on its claim that social media companies like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are “consciously failing” to combat the promotion of terrorism and extremism, it also reported on Prevent. The report rightly engages with criticism of Prevent, acknowledging how it has affected the Muslim community and calling for it to become more transparent:

“The concerns about Prevent amongst the communities most affected by it must be addressed. Otherwise it will continue to be viewed with suspicion by many, and by some as “toxic”… The government must be more transparent about what it is doing on the Prevent strategy, including by publicising its engagement activities, and providing updates on outcomes, through an easily accessible online portal.”

While this acknowledgement is good news, it is hard to see how real change will occur. As I have written previously, as Prevent has become more entrenched in British society, it has also become more secretive. For example, in August 2013, I lodged FOI requests to designated Prevent priority areas, asking for the most up-to-date Prevent funding information, including what projects received funding and details of any project engaging specifically with far-right extremism. I lodged almost identical requests between 2008 and 2009, all of which were successful. All but one of the 2013 requests were denied.

This denial is significant. Before the 2011 review, the Prevent strategy distributed money to help local authorities fight violent extremism and in doing so identified priority areas based solely on demographics. Any local authority with a Muslim population of at least five per cent was automatically given Prevent funding. The 2011 review pledged to end this. It further promised to expand Prevent to include far-right extremism and stop its use in community cohesion projects. Through these FOI requests I was trying to find out whether or not the 2011 pledges had been met. But with the blanket denial of information, I was left in the dark.

It is telling that the report’s concerns with Prevent are not new and have in fact been highlighted in several reports by the same Home Affairs Select Committee, as well as numerous reports by NGOs. But nothing has changed. In fact, the only change proposed by the report is to give Prevent a new name: Engage. But the problem was never the name. Prevent relies on the premise that terrorism and extremism are inherently connected with Islam, and until this is changed, it will continue to be at best counter-productive, and at worst, deeply discriminatory.

In his evidence to the committee, David Anderson, the independent ombudsman of terrorism legislation, has called for an independent review of the Prevent strategy. This would be a start. However, more is required. What is needed is a radical new approach to counter-terrorism and counter-extremism, one that targets all forms of extremism and that does not stigmatise or stereotype those affected.

Such an approach has been pioneered in the Danish town of Aarhus. Faced with increased numbers of youngsters leaving Aarhus for Syria, police officers made it clear that those who had travelled to Syria were welcome to come home, where they would receive help with going back to school, finding a place to live and whatever else was necessary for them to find their way back to Danish society.  Known as the ‘Aarhus model’, this approach focuses on inclusion, mentorship and non-criminalisation. It is the opposite of Prevent, which has from its very start framed British Muslims as a particularly deviant suspect community.

We need to change the narrative of counter-terrorism in the UK, but a narrative is not changed by a new title. Just as a rose by any other name would smell as sweet, a bad policy by any other name is still a bad policy. While the Home Affairs Select Committee concern about Prevent is welcomed, real action is needed. This will involve actually engaging with the Muslim community, listening to their concerns and not dismissing them as misunderstandings. It will require serious investigation of the damages caused by new Prevent statutory duty, something which the report does acknowledge as a concern.  Finally, real action on Prevent in particular, but extremism in general, will require developing a wide-ranging counter-extremism strategy that directly engages with far-right extremism. This has been notably absent from today’s report, even though far-right extremism is on the rise. After all, far-right extremists make up half of all counter-radicalization referrals in Yorkshire, and 30 per cent of the caseload in the east Midlands.

It will also require changing the way we think about those who are radicalized. The Aarhus model proves that such a change is possible. Radicalization is indeed a real problem, one imagines it will be even more so considering the country’s flagship counter-radicalization strategy remains problematic and ineffective. In the end, Prevent may be renamed a thousand times, but unless real effort is put in actually changing the strategy, it will remain toxic. 

Dr Maria Norris works at London School of Economics and Political Science. She tweets as @MariaWNorris.