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Got a cold? Eat caterpillars

Why medinical zinc is not all it's cracked up to be.

How’s this for impact? At the end of January, a research group in Manchester published a paper on the essential role of zinc in the human immune system. A week later, the price of zinc rose on the international metals markets after its longest slump in 25 years.

Amazing? Of course not. These are two entirely unrelated events. But it’s the ability to separate coincidence from causality that allows us to distinguish old wives’ tales from useful information.

Zinc has been in medical use since at least the 2nd century BC. A set of pills found in the remains of a ship wrecked off the Tuscan coast in 140BC are 75 per cent zinc. They were almost certainly used to treat eye and skin disorders, a practice documented by the Roman polymath Pliny in the 1st century AD.

Zinc is still used for this purpose. It has antiseptic and antiviral properties, which is why it is often embedded in dressings for wounds. What’s more, anecdotal evidence has long suggested that taking zinc supplements helps fight the common cold. But anecdotal evidence isn’t the most trustworthy: sometimes it sees cause and effect where there is none.

Even individual studies haven’t been enough to give us the answer; depending on how they are carried out, they can produce conflicting results. Fortunately, we’ve developed even more sophisticated techniques: dissection, analysis and pooling of the scientific studies themselves. This has allowed us to draw a firm and reliable conclusion. In the case of zinc, it’s this: take at least 75mg a day and “there is a significant reduction in the duration of cold”, according to a gold-standard Cochrane Review, which looks at primary research in health care. Ancient wisdom, in this case, has some validity.

What the ancients didn’t know is the mechanism involved. Zinc deficiency, it turns out, causes more than 3,000 types of protein in the body to function inefficiently or not at all. The body responds to this as stress, causing the immune system to leap into action. Specifically, according to researchers at Manchester University, zinc deficiency unleashes a molecule called interleukin-1-beta. This is part of the armoury of the immune system. The trouble is that, in the absence of any infection to clear, firing the immune response’s weaponry just causes damage.

The zinc deficiency, as the researchers point out, could easily be resolved using dietary supplements. And this increased medical use of zinc could have an economic impact.

Not, it has to be said, in the metals markets, where the rising price of zinc is linked to China’s construction boom. But zinc use for medical purposes could be worth about $25bn a year in the US alone. That is the estimated annual impact of common colds, in terms of lost productivity. The Cochrane Review has found that taking zinc supplements for at least five months can reduce that. It certainly reduces school absences and the prescription of antibiotics for children with the common cold.

Because colds are caused by a virus, antibiotics do nothing for sufferers, yet doctors prescribe them as a placebo to get worried parents out of their surgery. So zinc supplementation also slows the spread of antibiotic resistance. Here’s a final tip in case the price of zinc lozenges skyrockets: a daily 100g of cooked caterpillars contains all the zinc you need.

You’re welcome.
 

Michael Brooks holds a PhD in quantum physics. He writes a weekly science column for the New Statesman, and his most recent book is At the Edge of Uncertainty: 11 Discoveries Taking Science by Surprise.

This article first appeared in the 19 February 2014 issue of the New Statesman, The Space Issue

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Meet Anne Marie Waters - the Ukip politician too extreme for Nigel Farage

In January 2016, Waters launched Pegida UK with former EDL frontman Steven Yaxley-Lennon (aka Tommy Robinson). 

There are few people in British political life who can be attacked from the left by Nigel Farage. Yet that is where Anne Marie Waters has found herself. And by the end of September she could well be the new leader of Ukip, a party almost synonymous with its beer-swilling, chain-smoking former leader.

Waters’s political journey is a curious one. She started out on the political left, but like Oswald Mosley before her, has since veered dramatically to the right. That, however, is where the similarities end. Waters is Irish, agnostic, a lesbian and a self-proclaimed feminist.

But it is her politics – rather than who she is – that have caused a stir among Ukip’s old guard. Former leader Paul Nuttall has said that her views make him “uncomfortable” while Farage has claimed Ukip is “finished” if, under her leadership, it becomes an anti-Islam party.

In her rhetoric, Waters echoes groups such as the English Defence League (EDL) and Britain First. She has called Islam “evil” and her leadership manifesto claims that the religion has turned Britain into a “fearful and censorious society”. Waters wants the banning of the burqa, the closure of all sharia councils and a temporary freeze on all immigration.

She started life in Dublin before moving to Germany in her teens to work as an au pair. Waters also lived in the Netherlands before returning to Britain to study journalism at Nottingham Trent University, graduating in 2003. She subsequently gained a second degree in law. It was then, she says, that she first learnt about Islam, which she claims treats women “like absolute dirt”. Now 39, Waters is a full-time campaigner who lives in Essex with her two dogs and her partner who is an accountant.

Waters’s first spell of serious activism was with the campaign group One Law for All, a secularist organisation fronted by the Iranian feminist and human rights activist Maryam Namazie. Waters resigned in November 2013 after four years with the organisation. According to Namazie, Waters left due to political disagreements over whether the group should collaborate with members of far-right groups.

In April 2014, Waters founded Sharia Watch UK and, in January 2016, she launched Pegida UK with former EDL frontman Steven Yaxley-Lennon (aka Tommy Robinson). The group was established as a British chapter of the German-based organisation and was set up to counter what it called the “Islamisation of our countries”. By the summer of 2016, it had petered out.

Waters twice stood unsuccessfully to become a Labour parliamentary candidate. Today, she says she could not back Labour due to its “betrayal of women” and “betrayal of the country” over Islam. After joining Ukip in 2014, she first ran for political office in the Lambeth council election, where she finished in ninth place. At the 2015 general election, Waters stood as the party’s candidate in Lewisham East, finishing third with 9.1 per cent of the vote. She was chosen to stand again in the 2016 London Assembly elections but was deselected after her role in Pegida UK became public. Waters was also prevented from standing in Lewisham East at the 2017 general election after Ukip’s then-leader Nuttall publicly intervened.

The current favourite of the 11 candidates standing to succeed Nuttall is deputy leader Peter Whittle, with Waters in second. Some had hoped the party’s top brass would ban her from standing but last week its national executive approved her campaign.

Due to an expected low turnout, the leadership contest is unpredictable. Last November, Nuttall was elected with just 9,622 votes. More than 1,000 new members reportedly joined Ukip in a two-week period earlier this year, prompting fears of far-right entryism.

Mike Hookem MEP has resigned as Ukip’s deputy whip over Waters’ candidacy, saying he would not “turn a blind eye” to extremism. By contrast, chief whip, MEP Stuart Agnew, is a supporter and has likened her to Joan of Arc. Waters is also working closely on her campaign with Jack Buckby, a former BNP activist and one of the few candidates to run against Labour in the by-election for Jo Cox’s former seat of Batley and Spen. Robinson is another backer.

Peculiarly for someone running to be the leader of a party, Waters does not appear to relish public attention. “I’m not a limelight person,” she recently told the Times. “I don’t like being phoned all the time.”

The journalist Jamie Bartlett, who was invited to the initial launch of Pegida UK in Luton in 2015, said of Waters: “She failed to remember the date of the demo. Her head lolled, her words were slurred, and she appeared to almost fall asleep while Tommy [Robinson] was speaking. After 10 minutes it all ground to an uneasy halt.”

In an age when authenticity is everything, it would be a mistake to underestimate yet another unconventional politician. But perhaps British Muslims shouldn’t panic about Anne Marie Waters just yet.

James Bloodworth is editor of Left Foot Forward

This article first appeared in the 17 August 2017 issue of the New Statesman, Trump goes nuclear