Charlie presents the medals for the women's beam event at this summer’s Commonwealth Games (Photo: John Shephard, Gibraltar Commonwealth Games Association)
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Special Interview Feature

“Politics and sport shouldn’t meet”: Gibraltar and the Commonwealth Games

Team Gibraltar has just completed an admirable stint at the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. We asked Charlie Flower, president of the Gibraltar Commonwealth Games Association, about the territory’s sporting history and future.

New Statesman: What is the history of Gibraltar's participation in the Commonwealth Games?

Charlie Flower: Gibraltar’s participation goes back to 1958 when it was called the British & Empire Games and was held in Cardiff. It was a special moment for me because I was able to represent my country in its first Games. I was also the flag bearer and travelled with another athlete, Brian Kitchener, who ran the mile and the 880 yards.

NS: How many times have you been to the Games? 

CF: Wales was my only Games as an athlete, but I’ve also been a coach once and I’ve travelled as chef de mission / general team manager five times. More recently, I’ve been at the Games in Delhi and Glasgow in my current role.

NS: You have just been awarded an Order of Merit for 60 years of service to sport in Gibraltar. How has the quality of sport in Gibraltar changed during this time?

CF: In some sports, the quality has exceeded expectations. However, in other areas it has moved more slowly. Gibraltar has the athletes to compete at international level but politics on the global stage plays its part in Gibraltar’s development.

NS: What have been the most significant milestones? 

CF: There have been many great achievements, whether Commonwealth activities or not. Gibraltar had an abundance of quality middle-distance runners from 1970 to 1984, which coincided with the closed-border years. Rifle shooting has also been of the highest level and continues to grow, with an individual performer of note being Heloise Manasco, who reached the final of the 10m women’s Air Rifle in Melbourne. Triathlon has also grown in popularity over the past dozen years.

NS: Tell us about your own career as an athlete. You were the first Gibraltarian to compete in the Commonwealth Games in 1958 – what was that like? 

CF: I was a keen sportsman and participated in most sports as a youngster on the Rock, although athletics was my forte. I specialised in one lap of the track, which was 440 yards in those days. It was a special moment for me in 1958 as it was a daunting prospect being on the start line in Cardiff up against world-renowned runners. I finished fifth in the first heat, clocking 53.10.

NS: How about this year's team – in what sports is Gibraltar particularly strong?

CF: This year’s team was the largest we’ve been able to send, with a total of 27 athletes across nine sports. There was a lot of experience, with some having competed three or four times before, but there were also a lot of youngsters cutting their teeth at this level for the first time.

We featured in three of the shooting disciplines. This included Albert Buhagiar and Wayne Piri competing in the 50m prone rifle, with Wayne finishing 14th out of 60 shooters.

It was a special Games for Wayne, with both his daughters also competing. Natalie was in the women’s prone rifle, while Stephanie shot in the 10m air rifle. Both shot well in their first Games and will surely return in four years time.

Clay trap shooters Kevin Cowles and Gary Cooper had a reasonable first day of competition but fell away in the second day, while air pistol pair Jonathan Patron and Louis Baglietto were solid, but will feel they have unfinished business.

We competed in squash for the first time, and the trio of Christian Navas, Anthony Brindle and Mark Tewkesbury all performed admirably against most of the world’s top 20. Anthony, in fact, made it to the second round of the singles.

The swim squad broke five national records across the six days in the pool, with the team blooding three young swimmers during the course of the first week.

The cyclists were just outside the top 30 in the time trial. With over 60 riders having taken to the start, the course was very demanding, but they stuck to their task.

Triathlon on the first day was of the highest calibre, with Gibraltar’s three triathletes up against the top in the world. Under the rules of the event, two of the Gibraltar boys were “pulled” from the elite race after being lapped by the race leaders, but the veteran Chris Walker was able to finish.

I’ve left my sport, athletics, till last. It started with disappointment, with Allison Edwards pulling out at the half way stage in the Marathon due a reoccurring injury. Allison was making her Games debut in her forties and I know how hard she had trained.

Emma Montiel battled bravely in the 10,000m, which is a gruelling 25 laps of the track. She was up against a whole host of world-class distance runners, while young sprinter Jerai Torres recorded two season bests in the 100m and 200m.

Gibraltar’s participation finished on a high, with Harvey Dixon breaking a national record that had stood for 28 years in the 1500m.

NS: What is support for the Commonwealth Games and the Gibraltar team like back home? Do the Games make Gibraltarians feel more British?

CF: The support is getting better and has grown in recent years, as we’ve looked to promote ourselves better. However, I still think we don’t get the support we deserve.

I don’t think the Games make Gibraltarians feel more British; that’s already part of our identity. We do feel part of a unique family alongside the other 70 nations of the Commonwealth.

NS: What has been the most memorable event for you throughout your career with the Gibraltar Commonwealth Games Association? 

CF: For me it is being flag bearer at the age of 21, but other memorable highlights include Heloise making the final in Melbourne, rhythmic gymnast Georgina Cassar making the final in Delhi, and hockey umpire Nathan Stagno officiating the final of the men’s hockey in India.

NS: It's rumoured that you will be retiring after this year's Games. What would you like your legacy to be? What are your hopes for the future of competitive sport in Gibraltar?

CF: Yes, I will be passing on the baton as President of the Gibraltar Commonwealth Games Association. My legacy is 60 years in sport, helping and being at the forefront of Gibraltar’s participation at the Games and as part of the Federation.

My hopes for the future are that one day Gibraltar will have athletes competing at the highest level on the international stage without obstacles and hindrance.

Politics and sport shouldn’t meet. We constantly strive for this. We’ve already had athletes participate at the Olympics for GB. Last time out in London, Georgina Cassar competed as part of the GB rhythmic gymnastics team, and Nathan, whom I’ve also already mentioned, officiated the hockey competition.

We can compete, it’s just a matter of time.

 

Charlie (right) shows off his Order of Merit alongside veteran triathlete Chris Walker (Photo: John Shephard, Gibraltar Commonwealth Games Association)

 

Photo: Getty
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Gibraltar - impact of Brexit

Last week our editor took a general overview of some of the scenarios for Gibraltar if Britain were to leave the Euro. This week, as the atmosphere in the British Conservative Party becomes ever more toxic, Michael Castiel, partner at Hassans lawyers on the Rock, goes into more detail (this piece written before the Iain Duncan Smith resignation and subsequent arguments happened).

However unlikely it may prove, the prospect of Britain's withdrawal from the EU sends shivers through Gibraltar's financial services, gaming and tourism industries, which are at the core of Gibraltar’s economy. For, if Britain leaves the EU, Gibraltar goes too, and, should Brexit occur, it is Gibraltar’s relationship with the UK that as in the past, largely will shape Gibraltar's future.

Gibraltar joined the European Union in 1973 as part of the UK. While rights to freedom of services across borders of EU member states apply between Gibraltar and the rest of the EU, because Gibraltar is not a separate member state (and is in fact part of the UK Member State) those rights do not apply between Gibraltar and the UK. Instead a bilateral agreement, formalised almost two decades ago, gives Gibraltar's financial service companies the equivalent EU passporting rights into the UK. Accordingly and pursuant to such agreement, where EU rights in banking, insurance and other financial services are concerned, the UK treats Gibraltar as if it is a separate member state.

This reliance on the special relationship with the UK is recognised by both the Government and the Opposition in Gibraltar, and when the territory (which in this instance as part of the UK electorate) goes to the polls on 23 June, the vote to remain in the EU is likely to be overwhelming. This may have symbolic significance but realistically seems unlikely to influence the outcome. In actual terms, although some non-EU jurisdictions use Gibraltar and its EU passporting rights as a stepping stone into Europe, almost 80% of Gibraltar’s business dealings are with the UK.

But whether or not Britain maintains the 'special relationship' with Gibraltar, if Brexit becomes a reality, other factors will come into play, with the ever-present Spanish Government’s historic sovereignty claim over Gibraltar topping the list.

Recently Spain's caretaker Foreign Minister Jose Maria Margallo went on record that if the UK voted to leave the EU he would immediately 'raise with the UK the question of Gibraltar.' If this was to come about it could take one or more of several different forms, ranging from a complete closure of the border between Spain and Gibraltar, demanding that Gibraltar passport-holders obtain costly visas to visit or transit Spain, imposing more stringent border controls, or a frontier toll on motorists driving into or out of Gibraltar. The latter idea was in fact floated by the Spanish Government three years ago, but dropped when the EU Commission indicated that any such toll would contravene EU law.

Here, again, imponderables come into play, for much will depend on which political parties will form the next Spanish government. A Spanish government headed by the right wing PP party is likely to take a less accommodating attitude towards Gibraltar (the Foreign Minister having recently indicated that in case of Brexit the Spanish Government may opportunistically push once again for a joint sovereignty deal with the UK over Gibraltar) whereas a left of centre coalition will likely adopt a more pragmatic and cooperative relationship with Gibraltar in the event of EU exit.

The most significant changes to Gibraltar's post-Brexit operation as an international finance centre are likely to be in the sphere of tax, and while Gibraltar has always met its obligations in relation to the relevant EU rules and Directives, it has also been slightly uncomfortable with aspects of the EU's moves towards harmonisation of corporate taxes across member states.

Although it was formed as a free market alliance, since its inception fiscal matters have been at the root of the EU, but Gibraltar's 'special relationship' with Britain has allowed considerable latitude in relation to what taxes it imposes or those it doesn't. However, as is the case with other member states, Gibraltar has increasingly found in recent years its fiscal sovereignty eroded and its latitude on tax matters severely curtailed.

As in Britain, Gibraltar has benefitted from several EU Directives introduced to harmonise and support the freedom of establishment, particularly the Parent-Subsidiary Directive which prohibits withholding taxes on cross-border intra-group interest dividend and royalty payments made within the EU.

As a stepping stone for foreign direct investment, should Brexit come about EU subsidiaries could no longer rely on these Directives to allow tax-free dividend or interest payments to their holding companies based in Gibraltar. In the case of the UK, bilateral double tax treaties will no doubt mitigate the impact of the non-application of any tax related Directives. Gibraltar, however, is not currently a party to any bilateral double tax treaties. Accordingly, Gibraltar would either have to seek from the UK the extension of all or some of the UK’s bilateral tax treaties to Gibraltar (subject of course to the agreement by the relevant counterparties) or it would need to negotiate its own network of bilateral double tax treaties with a whole series of EU and non EU Member States. To say the least, neither of these options would be straightforward to implement at short notice and would need the wholehearted support of the British Government

Whilst Gibraltar’s economy is likely to be adversely affected should Brexit occur, there may be some potential benefits. An EU exit would result in fewer regulations and possibly may provide Gibraltar with greater exposure to emerging economies.

From a tax perspective, an EU exit would probably enable Gibraltar to introduce tax rules and incentives that are contrary to EU tax laws and would provide the Gibraltar Government more freedom to adopt competitive tax regimes that may be considered contrary to EU state aid rules. How possible or effective any such strategy would be is doubtful given the OECD driven anti-tax avoidance climate affecting all reputable jurisdictions whether within or outside the EU.

In this as well as other possible change much will hinge on any post-Brexit relationship with the UK - an issue which the Gibraltar Government addressed recently in a paper sent to Westminster's Foreign Affairs Committee. It stressed not only that 'EU membership has been an important factor in the development of Gibraltar’s economy' but also the importance of 'clarity as to the rights the British Government will protect and defend for Gibraltar in the context of its own negotiations.' 

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