A map generated by ESA's Swarm array, detailing changes in the Earth's magnetic field - red is strengthening, blue is weakening. Image: ESA/DTU Space
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Get ready for the Earth's magnetic field to flip over

New satellite data has indicated that the Earth's magnetic field is weakening, ahead of a rare - but regular - event.

It's still somewhat surprising to think that plate tectonics has only been an accepted and established for roughly 50 years. That is, our understanding of the structure of atoms was more sophisticated, earlier, than our understanding of the planet we live on. Though, that's maybe unfair; as much as scientists could infer the existence of plate tectonics from, for example, the similarities between the coastlines of Africa and South America, gathering evidence to prove that the Earth has a crust floating on a molten mantle was somewhat difficult. (And it meant that the person credited as the modern theory's originator, Alfred Wegener, was considered a crank for years before the establishment changed its mind.)

After the Second World War, scientists were given the chance to use submarine-detecting devices for peaceful research missions, mapping the ocean floor. In the early 1960s a series of papers were published on the magnetic properties of the undersea world, with some surprising findings - it appeared that some places appeared to have ocean floor with a magnetic field that was the reverse of the Earth's. This chimed with the experience of fisherman living off volcanic islands, who have known for centuries that some patches of ocean can cause the north point of a compass to suddenly switch and point south; and it was consistent with magnetic rocks on land that also seemed to have the "wrong" magnetic polarisation.

Yet what became clear when those patches of irregularity were mapped, across the whole of the Atlantic and Pacific, was that they weren't randomly allocated patches - rather, it became clear that the ocean floor was laid out in long, symmetrical stripes of magnetism, emanating from faults like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was clear that magma was coming up from inside the planet, magnetised with a certain polarity, and then cooling and forming new rock as two tectonic plates moved apart from each other; and that every time the Earth's magnetic field flipped, it reversed the polarisation of the magma that was becoming new sea floor. It was a key discovery in confirming the theory of plate tectonics.

It might be a surprise to hear that the Earth's magnetic field flips over, but it does - every few hundred thousand years, the field weakens, then suddenly (which is relative in this context, on the order of a few hundred years) what was north-facing becomes south-facing, and what was south-facing becomes north-facing. We monitor the Earth's magnetic field with satellites these days, and the European Space Agency's Swarm array has noticed it weakening more significantly than expected:

Measurements made over the past six months confirm the general trend of the field’s weakening, with the most dramatic declines over the Western Hemisphere.

But in other areas, such as the southern Indian Ocean, the magnetic field has strengthened since January.

The latest measurements also confirm the movement of magnetic North towards Siberia.

Rune Floberghagen, the mission manager for Swarm, told Live Science that this new data could mean that a flip is due within the next few hundred years, contrary to earlier estimates of around 2,000 years from now.

We don't yet know whether this is signifying a "proper" flip like the Brunhes–Matuyama reversal of nearly 800,000 years ago, or a more temporary one like the one that occured roughly 40,000 years ago during the last ice age, but which only lasted for slightly more than 400 years. This is in part because we still aren't totally sure why these reverses even happen at all. The poles wobble anyway, and it could be that the molten core of the Earth is a bit like a spinning top, occasionally changing its pattern of movement and falling over; or it could be because of large chunks of mantle nearer the surface "fall" into the centre periodically, causing turbulence that throws things off.

Regardless, the changing of the magnetic field is not a cause for alarm, even if the magnetic field is largely responsible for protecting us all from the worst effects of cosmic radiation. This is because the magnetic field does not entirely disappear - it just weakens. There are some who theorise that these events have been linked with mass extinction events, but the evidence is tenuous at best.

Ian Steadman is a staff science and technology writer at the New Statesman. He is on Twitter as @iansteadman.

Photo: Getty/New Statesman
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The mother lode: how mums became the ultimate viral fodder

The internet’s favourite joke used to be "your mum". Now it's "my mum".

“I was like: oh my.”

Terri Squires is describing her reaction to the news that she had gone viral. Last month, more than 213,000 people shared a tweet about Terri – but it wasn’t sent from her account. The 50-year-old Ohioan was propelled to internet stardom by her son, Jeff, who had tweeted about his mother.

“I didn’t really realise what it meant at first until he was like: ‘Mum, you do realise that millions of people have looked at this?’ … When I started seeing those numbers I was like: ‘Oh boy’.”

It’s a funny story – and Terri laughs heartily all she tells it. After coming out of a meeting, she checked her phone and noticed a picture of a missing – white – dog on Facebook. She quickly texted 17-year-old Jeff to check that the family dog, Duey, was safe. “That’s not Duey… Duey’s face is brown,” replied her son. “OK – just checking,” replied Terri.

More than 600,000 people “liked” Terri’s mistake after Jeff shared screenshots of the text message exchange on Twitter. But Terri is just one of hundreds of mums who have gone viral via their sons and daughters. Texts mums send, mistakes they make, things they fail to notice – these have all become the ultimate viral fodder.

In the last three months alone, Gerald’s mum went viral for a microphone mishap, Adam’s mum shot to Twitter fame for failing to understand WhatsApp, Lois’ mum got tricked by her daughter, Harry’s mum was hit in the head with a football, Hanna’s mum misunderstood a hairstyle, and Jake’s mum failed to notice her son had swapped a photo in her home for a portrait of Kim Jong-un.

But how do the mothers behind these viral tweets feel?

“I'm pretty much a mum that everybody wants to talk to these days,” says Terri, with another warm laugh. The mum of three says going viral “is not that big of a deal” to her, but she is happy that her son can enjoy being a “local superstar”. But is she embarrassed at being the punchline of Jeff’s joke?

“Believe me, I have thick skin,” she says. “I kinda look at what it is, and it’s actually him and his fame. I’m just the mum behind it, the butt of the joke, but I don't mind.”

Not all mums feel the same. A handful of similar viral tweets have since been deleted, indicating the mothers featured in them weren’t best pleased. A few people I reach out to haven’t actually told their mums that they’re the subject of viral tweets, and other mums simply don’t want any more attention.

“I think I’ve put my mum through enough with that tweet already,” says Jacko, when I ask if his mum would be willing to be interviewed. In 2014, Jacko tweeted out a picture of his family writing the word “cock” in the air with sparklers. “This is still my favourite ever family photo,” he captioned the tweet, “My mum did the ‘O’. We told her we were going to write ‘Love’.”

“No one ever expects to call home and say ‘Mum, have you heard of something called LADbible? No, you shouldn’t have, it’s just that a quarter of a million of its fans have just liked a photo of you writing the word ‘cock’ with a sparkler’,” Jacko explains.

Although Jacko feels his mum’s been through enough with the tweet, he does say she was “ace” about her new found fame. “She’s probably cooler about it all than I am”. Apart from the odd deletion, then, it seems most mums are happy to become viral Twitter stars.

Yet why are mums so mocked and maligned in this way? Although dads are often the subject of viral tweets, this is usually because of jokes the dads themselves make (here’s the most notable example from this week). Mums, on the other hand, tend to be mocked for doing something “wrong” (though there are obviously a few examples of them going viral for their clever and cunning). On the whole: dads make jokes, mums are the butt of them.

“We all think our mums are so clueless, you know. They don’t know what’s going on. And the fun thing is, one day we come to realise that they knew way more of what was going on than we thought,” says Patricia Wood, a 56-year-old mum from Texas. “People always kind of make fun of their mums, but love them.”

Last year, Patricia went viral when her daughter Christina tweeted out screenshots of her mum’s Facebook posts. In them, Patricia had forgotten the names of Christina’s friends and had candidly written Facebook captions like: “My gorgeous daughter and her date for formal, sorry I forgot his name”. Christina captioned her tweet “I really can't with my mom” and went on to get more than 1,000 likes.

“I felt, like, wow, it was like we’re famous, you know. I thought it was really cool,” says Patricia, of going viral. Her experiences have been largely positive, and as a part-time Uber driver she enjoys telling her customers about the tweet. “But I did have one bad experience,” she explains. A drunken passenger in her car saw the tweet and called Patricia an “asshole”.

Another aspect of viral fame also worried Patricia. She and her daughter were invited on a reality show, TD Jakes, with the production company offering to pay for flights and hotels for the pair. “I have too many skeletons in my closet and I didn't want them to come dancing out,” says Patricia, of her decision not to go. “By the time I got off it, it would be the Jerry Springer show, you know. I’m kind of a strange bird.”

On the whole, then, mothers are often amused by going viral via their offspring – and perhaps this is the real beauty of tweeting about our mums. Since the moment they earn the title, mums can’t afford to be fragile. There is a joy and relatability in “my mum” tweets – because really, the mum in question could be anyone’s. Still, from now on, mums might be more careful about what they tell their sons and daughters.

“When I send Jeff a text now I make sure I’m like: ‘Is my spelling correct? Is what I’m saying grammatically correct?’,” says Terri, “Because who knows where the words are gonna end up?”

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.