Further evidence has emerged that Mars still has some liquid water

Scientists analysing images of Mars have found even more signs that, in rare circumstances, Mars may have water flowing across its surface.

Mars is supposed to be a dead, dry planet. There are clear signs that liquid water used to flow across its surface - remember Nasa mocking up that video of the Mars of 3.7 billion years ago? - but one of the Curiosity rover’s jobs right now is to investigate what we take to be ancient river bed.

This makes it very surprising indeed that scientists saw dark, water-like streaks in the red dust, in 2011. This should not be happening on a planet with no atmosphere.

To be clear, this isn’t proof that there’s liquid water on Mars - it’s just that we’ve seen something that looks a heck of a lot like liquid water. Here’s a slideshow of eight images showing what we’re talking about, provided by Nature:

Those black lines, as spotted by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, are known as “recurring slope lineae”, and they darken the Martian soil just as water darkens soil on Earth. They were originally found two years ago at seven sites in the highlands of southern Mars, at middle latitudes which warm up in the summer and freeze again in the winter.

This latest study, by the same team of planetary scientists led by Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona in Tucson, has found a further 12 sites with streaks, all on or near the equator. The equator has roughly the same temperatures year-round, and that means that - if there’s liquid water flowing on the surface - there must be a mechanism in place to replenish it. Mars’ low atmospheric pressure means that liquid water on the surface should sublimate into a gas almost immediately.

We now know that there’s quite a lot of water on Mars, be it frozen on the surface at the poles, under the surface elsewhere on the planet, or bound up with the soil itself. The implication of a flowing water source is that it might be the most likely location of life that still exists on Mars - but, conversely, that also makes it more crucial that we don’t send improperly sterilised probes there. If those Earth microbes are to survive anywhere on Mars - and scientists recently discovered a whole new species of microbe that could survive in even the most sterile of spaceship construction labs - then they’ll survive on these slopes.

It's also exciting for future colonists, who will save on energy if they don't have to heat up ice for drinking water. Our best chance of figuring out the exact nature of these lines on Mars is from afar, with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, until we can decide what further action to take. Perhaps even the first colonisers, whoever they be (maybe it'll be Mars One, who want to send people there on a one-way mission starting from 2024) will be able to take advantage of that water source.

Dark streaks on Mars that may be water. (Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/U. of Arizona)

Ian Steadman is a staff science and technology writer at the New Statesman. He is on Twitter as @iansteadman.

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You are living in a Black Mirror episode and you don’t care

The Investigatory Powers Bill is likely to become law later this year, but barely anyone is resisting the dystopian surveillance it will bring.

“They’re all about the way we live now – and the way we might be living in 10 minutes’ time if we're clumsy,” explained Charlie Brooker when asked to describe the concept behind his science fiction series Black Mirror. When series three was released on Netflix last week, this sentiment was reiterated over and over. “Omg, it’s just like Instagram!!!!” squealed individuals in their masses after watching episode one, “Nosedive”, set in a world where everyone rates one another out of five after their interactions. The parallel with social media is easy, obvious, and intentional, but it doesn’t teach us much. The real ways in which our world is like a dystopian sci-fi are, in fact, much more boring.

There will be no suspenseful songs or dramatic jump cuts preluding the third reading of the Investigatory Powers Bill in the House of Lords next week. The “snoopers’ charter” is likely to become law after it passed through its House of Commons readings with a few amendments, with 444 MPs voting in favour and 69 against. In short, the Bill will give the government unprecedented surveillance powers, allowing them to intercept and collect your communications, collect a list of the websites you visit and search it without a warrant, and force your internet service provider to help them collect your data.

Even though this is highly comparable to the dark visions of the future offered by Black Mirror, no one cares. Though the Bill faced initial resistance when it was announced in 2015, it has passed through its readings relatively unscathed. Black Mirror should provide a prime opportunity to discuss issues around privacy, but people prefer to compare dystopias to things they already hate. Lord help us all if we take selfies or stare at a device which is simultaneously an encyclopaedia, a newspaper, a book, a map, a bank, a radio, a camera and a telephone for more than ten minutes.

Yet the Investigatory Powers Bill does hold many parallels to the last episode of Black Mirror series three, “Hated in the Nation”. In it, the government use autonomous drones shaped like bees to spy on its people, which are then hacked to murder hated public figures. “Ok! The government’s a c**t, we knew that already,” says DCI Karin Parke, moving on to the real issue – not that the government spies on its citizens, but that the spying device can be hacked by those naughty, naughty citizens themselves.

The hacker – Garrett Scholes – has programmed the bees to kill whoever gets the most votes on Twitter via the hashtag #DeathTo. Then, in a Jon-Ronson-worthy twist, he sets the bees on the people who used the hashtag in the first place. The actual, moral, wake-up-sheeple message of “Hated in the Nation”, then, is that we should be careful who we wish death upon on social media. But it is precisely this freedom that we should be protecting. Under the Investigatory Powers Bill, your emails and search history could be used to argue that you really want to kill Katie Hopkins, rather than were just blowing off steam.

Yet it’s hard to blame anyone for ignoring the Bill, which is off-putting not because it’s not an episode of Black Mirror, but because it is long and confusing. Breaking through the terminology is hard, even in the handy fact sheets provided, and the government can claim transparency while using alienating language and concepts.

“Some of the powers in the Bill are deeply intrusive, and with very little possible justification,” warned former MP Dr Julian Huppert last week, “the cost to all of our privacy is huge.” The good news is that you don’t have to worry about metal bees spying on you, and the bad news is that this is because the government will soon have permission to do it the easy way.


Now listen to a review of the new series of Black Mirror on the NS pop culture podcast, SRSLY:

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.