Japanese scientists successfully tested a 'space cannon' this week

Not content with merely breaking the bonds of gravity and touching the face of God, now we want to fire plastic explosive into it.

A reminder there are some damned exciting space plans being worked on right now - in Japan, scientists report that a “space cannon” they have been building is armed and fully operational, and has been tested successfully (albeit not actually yet in space).

Hayabusa-2, designed and built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA for short) will be launched into space next year, and head off to intercept the orbit of an asteroid called 1999JU3. It’s the successor probe to Hayabusa-1, which landed on the asteroid Itokawa in 2005, collected some samples, and returned home. It was the first such sample-and-return mission, one which Hayabusa-2 will build on.

1999JU3 is roughly a kilometre in diameter, and is an Apollo asteroid. That’s a class of asteroid that orbits the Sun within the orbit of Mars, in between the innermost three plants of Mercury, Venus and Earth. They occasionally cross into our orbit, making them a threat - that’s what the Chelyabinsk meteor was - but 1999JU3 isn’t. It is an interesting one, though, because it’s assumed to be made up of material similar to those found on the early Earth, and thus carry some of the organic compounds that we assume, on our planet, become life.

But you’re here for the space cannon, right? Here’s how it’s going to work.

After arriving at the asteroid sometime in 2018, and after taking 18 months’ worth of readings, Hayabusa-2 will deploy its cannon on one side of the asteroid (plus a camera so it can watch) before heading over to the opposite side. That way, nothing from the explosion should damage it.

Then, the space cannon will drift in. As it gets close to the surface it’ll detonate, firing a bullet containing 4.5kg of plastic explosive into the asteroid’s surface, blowing a crater into the asteroid’s side. Hayabusa-2 will emerge from hiding on the far side, swoop down to the exposed wound, and scoop up some samples. Then it’ll fly home, returning by 2020.

Alas, it is not quite as cool as Nasa’s awesome plan to capture an asteroid and pull it into orbit around the Moon. If we did that, we could send astronauts to it as practice for tricky things like landing on Mars or even distant moons. We might be watching footage of humans setting foot on another tiny alien world as soon as 2021, as long as funding can be found.
 

Artist's Concept of Hayabusa-2. (Image: Akihiro Ikeshita/JAXA)

Ian Steadman is a staff science and technology writer at the New Statesman. He is on Twitter as @iansteadman.

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“Stinking Googles should be killed”: why 4chan is using a search engine as a racist slur

Users of the anonymous forum are targeting Google after the company introduced a programme for censoring abusive language.

Contains examples of racist language and memes.

“You were born a Google, and you are going to die a Google.”

Despite the lack of obscenity and profanity in this sentence, you have probably realised it was intended to be offensive. It is just one of hundreds of similar messages posted by the users of 4chan’s Pol board – an anonymous forum where people go to be politically incorrect. But they haven’t suddenly seen the error of their ways about using the n-word to demean their fellow human beings – instead they are trying to make the word “Google” itself become a racist slur.

In an undertaking known as “Operation Google”, some 4chan users are resisting Google’s latest artificial intelligence program, Conversation AI, by swapping smears for the names of Google products. Conversation AI aims to spot and flag offensive language online, with the eventual possibility that it could automatically delete abusive comments. The famously outspoken forum 4chan, and the similar website 8chan, didn’t like this, and began their campaign which sees them refer to “Jews” as “Skypes”, Muslims as “Skittles”, and black people as “Googles”.

If it weren’t for the utterly abhorrent racism – which includes users conflating Google’s chat tool “Hangouts” with pictures of lynched African-Americans – it would be a genius idea. The group aims to force Google to censor its own name, making its AI redundant. Yet some have acknowledged this might not ultimately work – as the AI will be able to use contextual clues to filter out when “Google” is used positively or pejoratively – and their ultimate aim is now simply to make “Google” a racist slur as revenge.


Posters from 4chan

“If you're posting anything on social media, just casually replace n****rs/blacks with googles. Act as if it's already a thing,” wrote one anonymous user. “Ignore the company, just focus on the word. Casually is the important word here – don't force it. In a month or two, Google will find themselves running a company which is effectively called ‘n****r’. And their entire brand is built on that name, so they can't just change it.”

There is no doubt that Conversation AI is questionable to anyone who values free speech. Although most people desire a nicer internet, it is hard to agree that this should be achieved by blocking out large swathes of people, and putting the power to do so in the hands of one company. Additionally, algorithms can’t yet accurately detect sarcasm and humour, so false-positives are highly likely when a bot tries to identify whether something is offensive. Indeed, Wired journalist Andy Greenberg tested Conversation AI out and discovered it gave “I shit you not” 98 out of 100 on its personal attack scale.

Yet these 4chan users have made it impossible to agree with their fight against Google by combining it with their racism. Google scores the word “moron” 99 out of 100 on its offensiveness scale. Had protestors decided to replace this – or possibly even more offensive words like “bitch” or “motherfucker” – with “Google”, pretty much everyone would be on board.

Some 4chan users are aware of this – and indeed it is important not to consider the site a unanimous entity. “You're just making yourselves look like idiots and ruining any legitimate effort to actually do this properly,” wrote one user, while some discussed their concerns that “normies” – ie. normal people – would never join in. Other 4chan users are against Operation Google as they see it as self-censorship, or simply just stupid.


Memes from 4chan

But anyone who disregards these efforts as the work of morons (or should that be Bings?) clearly does not understand the power of 4chan. The site brought down Microsoft’s AI Tay in a single day, brought the Unicode swastika (卐) to the top of Google’s trends list in 2008, hacked Sarah Palin’s email account, and leaked a large number of celebrity nudes in 2014. If the Ten Commandments were rewritten for the modern age and Moses took to Mount Sinai to wave two 16GB Tablets in the air, then the number one rule would be short and sweet: Thou shalt not mess with 4chan.

It is unclear yet how Google will respond to the attack, and whether this will ultimately affect the AI. Yet despite what ten years of Disney conditioning taught us as children, the world isn’t split into goodies and baddies. While 4chan’s methods are deplorable, their aim of questioning whether one company should have the power to censor the internet is not.

Google also hit headlines this week for its new “YouTube Heroes” program, a system that sees YouTube users rewarded with points when they flag offensive videos. It’s not hard to see how this kind of crowdsourced censorship is undesirable, particularly again as the chance for things to be incorrectly flagged is huge. A few weeks ago, popular YouTubers also hit back at censorship that saw them lose their advertising money from the site, leading #YouTubeIsOverParty to trend on Twitter. Perhaps ultimately, 4chan didn't need to go on a campaign to damage Google's name. It might already have been doing a good enough job of that itself.

Google has been contacted for comment.

Amelia Tait is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman.