The search engine company said that the proposed network, which would operate at 1GB per second is "experimental", and added that the "purpose of this project is to experiment and learn".
The company said it hopes to test high-speed applications over its experimental network, which would download a high-definition movie in less than five minutes.
The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) proposed a national broadband plan to upgrade networks at a cost of $350bn. The timing of Google's announcement seems designed to support the FCC's initiative.
Google has also promised to keep its high-speed networks open, allowing users to pick their own service provider.