I am walking behind the churchyard of St Mary Redcliffe in Bristol. The weather is filthy but I am bustling along Colston Parade, listening on my iPod to an eery cascade of organ music, seemingly coming from inside the Gothic structure across the yard. As I step along the parade, the music stops and a voice asks me to look at the church and think about the people who built it. The narrative connects the first master builder, Jack Henderson, and his daughter who, despite her sex, knew more about carving stone than any worker. Then it tells me how she tragically drowned at the nearby quay. After the master’s funeral his wife was said to have scattered mourning widow seeds, plants of which still grow throughout the neighbourhood like weeds. I pause and wait for the voice to finish and then move off, following my route on the screen in my hand.
Missorts is an art project devised by the novelist Tony White, alongside the Bristol based art organisation Situations. The project was commissioned by the Bristol Legible City initiative. Taking its cue from Bristol’s literary explorers such as its native authors Thomas Chatterton and Angela Carter, it is an intriguing adventure in the relationship between technology, art and the city. Guided by sounds, the city became a canvas for an alternative experience. This is not prose, or theatre or art as I normally appreciate it, but the technology – my iPhone, audio recordings, GPS locators, the 3G network – combine to provide a way to look at the city anew.
In November last year, Everything Everywhere (EE), the 4G network owned by TMobile and Orange, launched across 11 cities in the UK. Most people would have barely noticed except for seeing Kevin Bacon’s adverts discussing the finer points of network theory. However, by summer 2013 all major networks will have adopted faster download connections for most smartphones and tablets. The ways this may change how we live in cities and experience art is profound.
Artwork such as Missorts is competing in a cramped digital space. The techno-prophets have been heralding the dawn of “smart cities” for some time. Millions have already been invested in dividing up this virtual marketplace among the major corporations, even before the 4G networks are up and running. IBM, Cisco, Philips and Siemens are all investing heavily in smart city technology, at a price. The free wi-fi that was available on the London Underground network last summer, is now only open to Virgin, EE and Vodafone customers.
How will this change our cities as places of the arts and culture? GPS offers opportunity for creative exploration. While there have been numerous maps showing the most popular jogging routes (at least for runners sporting Nike trainers) in London and New York, there is also figurerunning.com, which allows you to use GPS to draw your route upon the map, sharing your regime alongside others who have run through the streets to create the shape of a rabbit, dog or Christmas tree. There is also a community of GPS artists using the city as a canvas. At the launch of EE in Liverpool, the artist Brenden Dawes collected the data for the first three days – 29-31 October – dividing up the main topics discussed and then transformed it into appealing patterns.
Mapping can also change the way we move around the city. Street Museum, devised by the Museum of London, allows one to see historical photos embedded in real London locations. GPS travel guides such as Pocket- Guide offer apps that include walks, audio tours, video and text to enhance a city break. Chris Speed at Edinburgh College of Art has been using GPS to layer historical maps on to the present-day city. In the Walking Through Time app, one can switch between Edinburgh in the present, 1950, 1939 and 1919.
At the moment, we experience these innovations through our smartphones but Apple, Microsoft and Google have developed “augmented reality glasses”, which will allow information to be layered across the horizon as we circumnavigate. So far, Google is forcing every developer who wants to create an app for the glasses to pay around £1,000; so it is clearly aimed at commercial enterprises rather than writers or artists.
The coming of 4G networks means that we will be relying more and more on technology to mediate our experience of the city. As a result, who owns the virtual information space of the city will be as important as who owns the actual fabric. But is there any virtual space for creativity? Drawing on the soundscape in Bristol, let’s hope that artists, writers and film-makers will start to exploit the new networks to deliver different types of writing and performance.
Though the technology offers the possibilities to expand the cultural city, these are still dangerous times. Already it is clear that the promise of freedom within the new networks are going to be surveilled by both business and government. As 4G gives us access to more information, we will become more watched. To repeat the great Silicon Valley open secret – if you are not paying for the product, then you are the product and will be handing over information about yourself, even if you don’t know you’re doing it.
In the age of 4G it become easy to access whatever you wants wherever you may be, and this also offers new ways of production, development and exploring new art practices. But there is a huge gulf between the promise and the reality: as the internet becomes increasingly free, it is also ever more controlled by commercial gatekeepers. The corporatisation of the virtual world may just prove to be the biggest threat to face our cities.
Leo Hollis is the author of “Cities Are Good For You” (Bloomsbury, April 2013)