Have you experienced the Tetris Effect? Photo: Sally Mahoney on Flickr via Creative Commons
Show Hide image

How gaming behaviour can spill over into real life

These phenomena tend to occur when video game players become so immersed in their gaming that, when they stop playing, they sometimes transfer some of their virtual gaming experiences to the real world.

Back in the early 1990s, I used to play the video game Tetris on my Nintendo Game Boy. I was really good at it – if I do say so myself – and I used to play for hours every day. When I went to bed I would see falling blocks as I closed my eyes. I often experienced the same thing when waking up.

And it turns out, it wasn’t just me. Many other gamers experience this too – so many that it’s actually called “The Tetris Effect” when you devote so much time and attention to an activity that it patterns your thoughts, mental images and dreams.

In the late 1980s I started researching the area of video game addiction. One of the papers I cited a lot in my early research concerning the side effects of excessive playing was a 1993 case study published in the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine by Sean Spence. This reported the case of a female video game player who suffering from delusions of being persecuted, exhibiting violent behaviour and experiencing constant imaginary auditory hallucinations triggered by the music of the Super Mario Brothers video game. This case study and the Tetris effect are both examples of what I and my research colleague Angelica Ortiz de Gortari call “game transfer phenomena”.

These phenomena tend to occur when video game players become so immersed in their gaming that, when they stop playing, they sometimes transfer some of their virtual gaming experiences to the real world. They can occur both visually and aurally, as well as in the form of unconscious bodily movements.

The symptoms

Our first study into game transfer phenomena, published in the International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning was an exploratory one. We found that in the small sample size of gamers we interviewed, all experienced some type of involuntary sensations, thoughts, actions or reflexes in relation to video games when not playing them. For instance, one gamer reported witnessing a maths equation appearing in a bubble above his teacher’s head while another reported health bars hovering over football players from a rival team.

The findings provoked some sensationalist and misleading press coverage and, unsurprisingly, angered some of the gaming community.

Since then we have published three more studies, cataloguing more than 1,600 gamers’ experiences (all had experienced some form of game transfer phenomena) in various academic journals. Our findings have shown that some gamers:

  1. Are unable to stop thinking about the game after playing.

  2. Expect that something from the game will happen in real life.

  3. Display confusion between video game events and real life events.

  4. Have impulses to perform something as in the video game.

  5. Have verbal outbursts.

  6. Experience voluntary and involuntary behaviours.

While some gamers qualify their experiences as funny, amusing, or even normal, others said they were surprised, felt worried, embarrassed and their experiences were a reason to quit playing. Based on our research so far, game transfer phenomena appear to be commonplace among excessive gamers. But the good news is that – for most – the phenomena are short-lasting, temporary and appear to resolve of their own accord.

Beyond the Tetris effect

Despite instances of game transfer phenomena elsewhere in the psychological and medical literature, we argue there are important reasons for not using the Tetris effect concept when studying game transfer phenomena across the board. Among the most important is that this early definition is very broad, not emphasising the importance of the association between real life stimulus and video game elements as a trigger of some of the transfer experiences.

Plus, the name itself is unhelpful. Inspired by the one specific stereotypical puzzle game, Tetris, the name indicates that it is repetition that triggers the transfer effects. But there are other factors involved in game transfer experiences and modern video games are much more complex than Tetris and similar games.

Our latest study that is in the works surveys over 2,500 gamers. We are still analysing the results, but preliminarily they do further indicate how common game transfer phenomena is among players – especially those who play heavily.

It could be that some gamers are more susceptible than others to experiencing game transfer phenomena. Although for many gamers the effects of these experiences appear to be short lived, our research also shows that some gamers experience them recurrently.

This is a relatively new area of research and more needs to be done to understand the cognitive and psychological implications of game transfer phenomena. Our studies to date show there is a need to investigate neural adaptations and after-effects induced by video game playing as a way of encouraging healthy and safe video game playing.

The ConversationDr Mark Griffiths has received research funding from a wide range of organisations including the Economic and Social Research Council, the British Academy and the Responsibility in Gambling Trust. He has also carried out consultancy for numerous gaming companies in the area of social responsibility and responsible gaming.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

HBO
Show Hide image

How power shifted dramatically in this week’s Game of Thrones

The best-laid plans of Mothers and men often go awry.

Last week’s Game of Thrones was absolutely full of maps. It had more maps than a Paper Towns/Moonrise Kingdom crossover. More maps than an Ordnance Survey walking tour of a cartographer’s convention. More maps than your average week on CityMetric.

So imagine the cheers of delight when this week’s episode, “Stormborn”, opened with – yes, a map! Enter Daenerys, casting her eyes over her carved table map (Ikea’s Västeross range, I believe), deciding whether to take King’s Landing and the iron throne from Cersei or a different path. After some sassy debates with Varys over loyalty, more members of her court enter to point angrily at different grooves in the table as Dany and Tyrion move their minature armies around the board.

In fact, this whole episode had a sense of model parts slotting pleasingly into place. Melisandre finally moved down the board from Winterfell to Dragonstone to initiate the series’ most inevitable meeting, between The King of the North and the Mother of Dragons. Jon is hot on her heels. Arya crossed paths with old friends Hot Pie and Nymeria, and the right word spoken at the right time saw her readjust her course to at last head home to the North. Tyrion seamlessly anticipated a move from Cersei and changed Dany’s tack accordingly. There was less exposition than last week, but the episode was starting to feel like an elegant opening to a long game of chess.

All this made the episode’s action-filled denouement all the more shocking. As Yara, Theon and Ellaria dutifully took their place in Dany’s carefully mapped out plans, they were ambushed by their mad uncle Euron (a character increasingly resembling Blackbeard-as-played-by-Jared-Leto). We should have known: just minutes before, Yara and Ellaria started to get it on, and as TV law dictates, things can never end well for lesbians. As the Sand Snakes were mown down one by one, Euron captured Yara and dared poor Theon to try to save her. As Theon stared at Yara’s desperate face and tried to build up the courage to save her, we saw the old ghost of Reek quiver across his face, and he threw himself overboard. It’s an interesting decision from a show that has recently so enjoyed showing its most abused characters (particularly women) delight in showy, violent acts of revenge. Theon reminds us that the sad reality of trauma is that it can make people behave in ways that are not brave, or redemptive, or even kind.

So Euron’s surprise attack on the rest of the Greyjoy fleet essentially knocked all the pieces off the board, to remind us that the best-laid plans of Mothers and men often go awry. Even when you’ve laid them on a map.

But now for the real question. Who WAS the baddest bitch of this week’s Game of Thrones?

Bad bitch points are awarded as follows:

  • Varys delivering an extremely sassy speech about serving the people. +19.
  • Missandei correcting Dany’s High Valerian was Extremely Bold, and I, for one, applaud her. +7.
  • The prophecy that hinges on a gender-based misinterpretation of the word “man” or “prince” has been old since Macbeth, but we will give Dany, like, two points for her “I am not a prince” chat purely out of feminist obligation. +2.
  • Cersei having to resort to racist rhetoric to try and persuade her own soldiers to fight for her. This is a weak look, Cersei. -13.
  • Samwell just casually chatting back to his Maester on ancient medicine even though he’s been there for like, a week, and has read a total of one (1) book on greyscale. +5. He seems pretty wrong, but we’re giving points for sheer audacity.
  • Cersei thinking she can destroy Dany’s dragon army with one (1) big crossbow. -15. Harold, they’re dragons.
  • “I’ve known a great many clever men. I’ve outlived them all. You know why? I ignored them.” Olenna is the queen of my LIFE. +71 for this one (1) comment.
  • Grey Worm taking a risk and being (literally) naked around someone he loves. +33. He’s cool with rabid dogs, dizzying heights and tumultuous oceans, but clearly this was really scary for him. It’s important and good to be vulnerable!! All the pats on the back for Grey Worm. He really did that.
  • Sam just fully going for it and chopping off all of Jorah’s skin (even though he literally… just read a book that said dragonglass can cure greyscale??). +14. What is this bold motherfucker doing.
  • Jorah letting him. +11.
  • “You’ve been making pies?” “One or two.” Blatant fan service from psycho killer Arya, but I fully loved it. +25.
  • Jon making Sansa temporary Queen in the North. +7.
  • Sansa – queen of my heart and now Queen in the North!!! +17.
  • Jon choking Littlefinger for perving over Sansa. +19. This would just be weird and patriarchal, but Littlefinger is an unholy cunt and Sansa has been horrifically abused by 60 per cent of the men who have ever touched her.
  • Nymeria staring down the woman who once possessed her in a delicious reversal of fortune. +13. Yes, she’s a wolf but she did not consent to being owned by a strangely aggressive child.
  • Euron had a big win. So, regrettably, +10.

​That means this week’s bad bitch is Olenna Tyrell, because who even comes close? This week’s loser is Cersei. But, as always, with the caveat that when Cersei is really losing – she strikes hard. Plus, Qyburn’s comment about the dragon skeletons under King’s Landing, “Curious that King Robert did not have them destroyed”, coupled with his previous penchant for re-animated dead bodies, makes me nervous, and worry that – in light of Cersei’s lack of heir – we’re moving towards a Cersei-Qyburn-White Walkers alliance. So do watch out.

Anna Leszkiewicz is a pop culture writer at the New Statesman.