Friday Arts Diary

Our cultural picks for the week ahead.

Film

I Am Breathing, directed by Emma Davie and Morag Mckinnon, cinemas nationwide, Friday 21st June

This documentary charts the final days of Scottish architect Neil Platt, who was diagnosed with Motor Neuron Disease in 2008. In a caption at the beginning of the film, Platt promises ‘a tale of fun and laughs with a smattering of upset and devastation’ and he isn’t lying; as well as deeply poignant moments, there is also a fair amount of dark humour. Recently, there have been several films of a similar theme, but critics have called I am Breathing “by far the most honest and poignant”.

Exhibition

Dieter Roth: Diaries, Camden Arts Centre, 22nd June-14th July

In the year leading up to his death, artist Dieter Roth went through the meticulous and gargantuan process of recording his entire existence, using a vast range of media. One of the more dominant pieces in the exhibition is the ‘solo scenes’ - 128 video tapes replaying the everyday actions which constitute our lives. Installations, books, sculpture, drawing and assemblages are also used to create “a record of his relentless and impassioned engagement with life”.

Concert

Die Antwoord, O2 Academy Brixton, Saturday 22nd June

The talented, albeit controversial South-African hip-hop trio are bringing their electro beats and intelligent lyrics to the O2 Academy Brixton this weekend. Described by some as “futuristic rap-rave”, Die Antwoord’s music breaks the mould of generic, popular electronic music, associated with such music artists as David Guetta, and introduces the genre to a level of talent with which it is seldom associated.

TV

Andy Murray: The Man Behind the Racquet, BBC 1, 22:25, Sunday 23rd June

With Wimbledon kicking off on Monday 24th June, this documentary will provide a glimpse into the life of one of Britain’s most prominent sporting figures, promising to reveal “just what it takes to be a global sports star”. Murray suggested recently that he intentionally comes across as dull in press conferences to avoid the brutal scrutiny of media attention. Can it be then that, behind the expressionless face and monotonous voice, Andy Murray lives a wild celebrity lifestyle? Probably not, but this documentary may prove to be an interesting appetizer in the lead up to Wimbledon.

Festival

Night + Day, Hatfield House, Saturday 22nd June

The “enigmatic and artfully moody” electro-pop stars, The XX, have put together this festival on the outskirts of London. From early afternoon, their own favourite artists (Solange, Polica, Kindness, Mount Kimbie and many more) will perform across two stages, culminating in a performance from the organizers themselves. The show debuted at a 16th century defence tower in Lisbon before stopping off at an abandoned amusement park in Berlin on its way to London, leaving very impressed critics in its wake.

Die Antwoord's lead vocalist, Ninja, performs at Outside Lands music festival in 2012.
Davide Restivo at Wikimedia Commons
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Scientists have finally said it: alcohol causes cancer

Enough of "linked" and "attributable": a new paper concludes that alcohol directly causes seven types of cancer.

I don't blame you if you switch off completely at the words "causes cancer". If you pay attention to certain publications, everything from sunbeds, to fish, to not getting enough sun, can all cause cancer. But this time, it's worth listening.

The journal Addiction has published a paper that makes a simple, yet startling, claim: 

"Evidence can support the judgement that alcohol causes cancer of the oropharynx [part of the throat], larynx, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum and [female] breast"

So what's especially significant about this? 

First, scientists, unlike journalists, are very wary of the word "causes". It's hard to ever prove that one action directly led to another, rather than that both happened to occur within the same scenario. And yet Jennie Connor, author of the paper and professor in the Preventive and Social Medicine department at the University of Otago, New Zealand, has taken the leap.

Second, alcohol not only causes cancer of one kind – the evidence supports the claim that it causes cancer at seven different sites in our bodies. There was weaker evidence that it may also cause skin, prostate and pancreatic cancer, while the link between mouth cancers and alcohol consumption was the strongest. 

What did we know about alcohol and cancer before?

Many, many studies have "linked" cancer to alcohol, or argued that some cases may be "attributable" to alcohol consumption. 

This paper loooks back over a decade's worth of research into alcohol and cancer, and Connor concludes that all this evidence, taken together, proves that alcohol "increases the incidence of [cancer] in the population".

However, as Connor notes in her paper, "alcohol’s causal role is perceived to be more complex than tobacco's", partly because we still don't know exactly how alcohol causes cancer at these sites. Yet she argues that the evidence alone is enough to prove the cause, even if we don't know exactly how the "biologial mechanisms" work. 

Does this mean that drinking = cancer, then?

No. A causal link doesn't mean one thing always leads to the other. Also, cancer in these seven sites was shown to have what's called a "dose-response" relationship, which means the more you drink, the more you increase your chances of cancer.

On the bright side, scientists have also found that if you stop drinking altogether, you can reduce your chances back down again.

Are moderate drinkers off the hook?

Nope. Rather devastatingly, Connor notes that moderate drinkers bear a "considerable" portion of the cancer risk, and that targeting only heavy drinkers with alcohol risk reduction campaigns would have "limited" impact. 

What does this mean for public health? 

This is the tricky bit. In the paper, Connor points out that, given what we know about lung cancer and tobacco, the general advice is simply not to smoke. Now, a strong link proven over years of research may suggest the same about drinking, an activity society views as a bit risky but generally harmless.

Yet in 2012, it's estimated that alcohol-attributable cancers killed half a million people, which made up 5.8 per cent of cancer deaths worldwide. As we better understand the links between the two, it's possible that this proportion may turn out to be a lot higher. 

As she was doing the research, Connor commented:

"We've grown up with thinking cancer is very mysterious, we don't know what causes it and it's frightening, so to think that something as ordinary as drinking is associated with cancer I think is quite difficult."

What do we do now?

Drink less. The one semi-silver lining in the study is that the quantity of alcohol you consume has a real bearing on your risk of developing these cancers. 

On a wider scale, it looks like we need to recalibrate society's perspective on drinking. Drug campaigners have long pointed out that alcohol, while legal, is one of the most toxic and harmful drugs available  an argument that this study will bolster.

In January, England's chief medical officer Sally Davies introduced some of the strictest guidelines on alcohol consumption in the world, and later shocked a parliamentary hearing by saying that drinking could cause breast cancer.

"I would like people to take their choice knowing the issues," she told the hearing, "And do as I do when I reach for my glass of wine and think... do I want to raise my risk of breast cancer?"

Now, it's beginning to look like she was ahead of the curve. 

Barbara Speed is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman and a staff writer at CityMetric.