Friday Arts Diary

Our cultural picks for the week ahead.

Art

From Death to Death and Other Small Tales, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh 15 Dec-8 Sept 2013

Presenting masterpieces from the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and the D Daskalopoulos Collection, one of the most private important collections of modern and contemporary art, this exhibition offers the visitor 130 works.

The focus of the exhibition is the importance of the body as a theme in 20th and 21st century art practice. Visitors will be able to see works that have not previously been available to view in Scotland. The D.Daskalopoulos Collection has developed since 1994 and artists include Marcel Duchamp, Tracey Emin and Marina Abramovic.

Comedy

Josie Long, Romance and Adventure, BAC, London SW11, 19-21 December

The comedian is on tour with her sixth comedy solo show, Romance and Adventure, which was also nominated for the Edinburgh comedy award for best show (the third year in a row she's received that nomination). The show promises high-end adventure pursuits and even a moment when Josie will pretend to be some kind of posh Godzilla on the rampage. Focusing on the issues facing those turning 30, including the struggle to keep going when you are tired and the myriad doubts one faces.

Theatre

Privates on Parade, Noel Coward Theatre, London WC2, until 2 March 2013

Having opened in the West End a few days ago, this production has already received rave reviews in the national newspapers for the star performance from Simon Russell Beale. The play, directed here by Michael Grandage, is a comedy set against the murderous backdrop of the Malaysian campaign at the end of the Second World War. Private Steven Flowers is sent to the Song and Dance Unit in South East Asia where he meets Captain Terri Dennis, played by Russell Beale. Private Flowers soon learns from the flamboyant captain that becoming a man is more than just the uniform.

Julius Caesar, Donmar Warehouse, London WC2, until 9 February

This all-female production of one of history’s most prominent figures in Shakespeare’s play has likewise been successful among critics. It is Phyllida Lloyd’s first appearance as director since the Thatcher biopic The Iron Lady, and it is a return that is certainly lauded. Although Mark Rylance and Stephen Fry’s casting in Twelfth Night in an all-male production appears to have gained more headlines, the Donmar’s show is set to be a hit with the focus on the all-important issues of power and corruption.

Music

London Symphony Orchestra/Valery Gergiev, Barbican Centre, London EC2, 19 December

As part of UBS Soundscapes, the London Symphony of Orchestra will be performing next weekin the Barbican Hall. They will perform Szymanowski’s Symphony No 4 ("Symphonie Concertante"), his Violin Concerto No 2 and Brahms's Symphony No 4, conducted by Russian conductor, Valery Gergiev. Gergiev will be conducting several performances between 19 December and 31 March 2013.

Tracey Emin, whose work will feature in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art's latest exhibition on 15 December onwards. Photograph: Peter Macdiarmid/Getty Images
Davide Restivo at Wikimedia Commons
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Scientists have finally said it: alcohol causes cancer

Enough of "linked" and "attributable": a new paper concludes that alcohol directly causes seven types of cancer.

I don't blame you if you switch off completely at the words "causes cancer". If you pay attention to certain publications, everything from sunbeds, to fish, to not getting enough sun, can all cause cancer. But this time, it's worth listening.

The journal Addiction has published a paper that makes a simple, yet startling, claim: 

"Evidence can support the judgement that alcohol causes cancer of the oropharynx [part of the throat], larynx, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum and [female] breast"

So what's especially significant about this? 

First, scientists, unlike journalists, are very wary of the word "causes". It's hard to ever prove that one action directly led to another, rather than that both happened to occur within the same scenario. And yet Jennie Connor, author of the paper and professor in the Preventive and Social Medicine department at the University of Otago, New Zealand, has taken the leap.

Second, alcohol not only causes cancer of one kind – the evidence supports the claim that it causes cancer at seven different sites in our bodies. There was weaker evidence that it may also cause skin, prostate and pancreatic cancer, while the link between mouth cancers and alcohol consumption was the strongest. 

What did we know about alcohol and cancer before?

Many, many studies have "linked" cancer to alcohol, or argued that some cases may be "attributable" to alcohol consumption. 

This paper loooks back over a decade's worth of research into alcohol and cancer, and Connor concludes that all this evidence, taken together, proves that alcohol "increases the incidence of [cancer] in the population".

However, as Connor notes in her paper, "alcohol’s causal role is perceived to be more complex than tobacco's", partly because we still don't know exactly how alcohol causes cancer at these sites. Yet she argues that the evidence alone is enough to prove the cause, even if we don't know exactly how the "biologial mechanisms" work. 

Does this mean that drinking = cancer, then?

No. A causal link doesn't mean one thing always leads to the other. Also, cancer in these seven sites was shown to have what's called a "dose-response" relationship, which means the more you drink, the more you increase your chances of cancer.

On the bright side, scientists have also found that if you stop drinking altogether, you can reduce your chances back down again.

Are moderate drinkers off the hook?

Nope. Rather devastatingly, Connor notes that moderate drinkers bear a "considerable" portion of the cancer risk, and that targeting only heavy drinkers with alcohol risk reduction campaigns would have "limited" impact. 

What does this mean for public health? 

This is the tricky bit. In the paper, Connor points out that, given what we know about lung cancer and tobacco, the general advice is simply not to smoke. Now, a strong link proven over years of research may suggest the same about drinking, an activity society views as a bit risky but generally harmless.

Yet in 2012, it's estimated that alcohol-attributable cancers killed half a million people, which made up 5.8 per cent of cancer deaths worldwide. As we better understand the links between the two, it's possible that this proportion may turn out to be a lot higher. 

As she was doing the research, Connor commented:

"We've grown up with thinking cancer is very mysterious, we don't know what causes it and it's frightening, so to think that something as ordinary as drinking is associated with cancer I think is quite difficult."

What do we do now?

Drink less. The one semi-silver lining in the study is that the quantity of alcohol you consume has a real bearing on your risk of developing these cancers. 

On a wider scale, it looks like we need to recalibrate society's perspective on drinking. Drug campaigners have long pointed out that alcohol, while legal, is one of the most toxic and harmful drugs available  an argument that this study will bolster.

In January, England's chief medical officer Sally Davies introduced some of the strictest guidelines on alcohol consumption in the world, and later shocked a parliamentary hearing by saying that drinking could cause breast cancer.

"I would like people to take their choice knowing the issues," she told the hearing, "And do as I do when I reach for my glass of wine and think... do I want to raise my risk of breast cancer?"

Now, it's beginning to look like she was ahead of the curve. 

Barbara Speed is a technology and digital culture writer at the New Statesman and a staff writer at CityMetric.