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Facebook IPO: the company floats on the stock market today

The company has been valued at $104bn.

After months of media anticipation, Facebook launched on the stock market with shares at a starting price of $38, although that is expected to increase by as much as 50 per cent today.

Facebook was valued at $104bn, and Mark Zuckerberg's share at $19.1bn.

The valuation far outstrips longer established companies like Amazon and Disney.

Critics have said $38 share price is too high - Facebook's valuation is four times higher than Google's $25bn when it launched as a public company in 2004. The company expects to have a billion people log on to its site this year, and 400m users log on six days per week.

Mark Zuckerberg is now the 28th richest person in the world, just eight years after founding Facebook at Harvard. The IPO is expected to mint more than a thousand millionaires at the company.

Zuckerberg chose to ring the Nasdaq bell remotely from Facebook headquarters in California, flanked by colleagues who had been enjoying an all night 'Hackathon' at headquarters, writing new code for the site. Facebook will begin trading under the Nasdaq symbol “FB”.

Using the Google model, Zuckerberg created two classes of Facebook stock, so that executives can keep control as Wall Street pressures start to develop. This means that Zuckerberg will have final say on how 56 per cent of Facebook stock votes.

Earlier on, a Nasdaq glitch looked like it would delay the floating indefinitely, but the problem was resolved in time for a 11:30 ET opening.

Co-Founder Eduardo Saverin, whose 4 per cent shares are now worth $4.2bn, has come in for criticism in the US in recent days, as he gave up US citizenship to reside in Singapore – meaning he will not pay capital gains tax on his earnings, as the tax does not exist there. He has claimed this was not the reason for the move.

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The strange death of boozy Britain: why are young people drinking less?

Ditching alcohol for work.

Whenever horrific tales of the drunken escapades of the youth are reported, one photo reliably gets wheeled out: "bench girl", a young woman lying passed out on a public bench above bottles of booze in Bristol. The image is in urgent need of updating: it is now a decade old. Britain has spent that time moving away from booze.

Individual alcohol consumption in Britain has declined sharply. In 2013, the average person over 15 consumed 9.4 litres of alcohol, 19 per cent less than 2004. As with drugs, the decline in use among the young is particularly notable: the proportion of young adults who are teetotal increased by 40 per cent between 2005 and 2013. But decreased drinking is not only apparent among the young fogeys: 80 per cent of adults are making some effort to drink less, according to a new study by consumer trends agency Future Foundation. No wonder that half of all nightclubs have closed in the last decade. Pubs are also closing down: there are 13 per cent fewer pubs in the UK than in 2002. 

People are too busy vying to get ahead at work to indulge in drinking. A combination of the recession, globalisation and technology has combined to make the work of work more competitive than ever: bad news for alcohol companies. “The cost-benefit analysis for people of going out and getting hammered starts to go out of favour,” says Will Seymour of Future Foundation.

Vincent Dignan is the founder of Magnific, a company that helps tech start-ups. He identifies ditching regular boozing as a turning point in his career. “I noticed a trend of other entrepreneurs drinking three, four or five times a week at different events, while their companies went nowhere,” he says. “I realised I couldn't be just another British guy getting pissed and being mildly hungover while trying to scale a website to a million visitors a month. I feel I have a very slight edge on everyone else. While they're sleeping in, I'm working.” Dignan now only drinks occasionally; he went three months without having a drop of alcohol earlier in the year.

But the decline in booze consumption isn’t only about people becoming more work-driven. There have never been more alternate ways to be entertained than resorting to the bottle. The rise of digital TV, BBC iPlayer and Netflix means most people means that most people have almost limitless about what to watch.

Some social lives have also partly migrated online. In many ways this is an unfortunate development, but one upshot has been to reduce alcohol intake. “You don’t need to drink to hang out online,” says Dr James Nicholls, the author of The Politics of Alcohol who now works for Alcohol Concern. 

The sheer cost of boozing also puts people off. Although minimum pricing on booze has not been introduced, a series of taxes have made alcohol more expensive, while a ban on below-cost selling was introduced last year. Across the 28 countries of the EU, only Ireland has higher alcohol and tobacco prices than the UK today; in 1998 prices in the UK were only the fourth most expensive in the EU.

Immigration has also contributed to weaning Britain off booze. The decrease in alcohol consumption “is linked partly to demographic trends: the fall is largest in areas with greater ethnic diversity,” Nicholls says. A third of adults in London, where 37 per cent of the population is foreign born, do not drink alcohol at all, easily the highest of any region in Britain.

The alcohol industry is nothing if not resilient. “By lobbying for lower duty rates, ramping up their marketing and developing new products the big producers are doing their best to make sure the last ten years turn out to be a blip rather than a long term change in culture,” Nicholls says.

But whatever alcohol companies do to fight back against the declining popularity of booze, deep changes in British culture have made booze less attractive. Forget the horrific tales of drunken escapades from Magaluf to the Bullingdon Club. The real story is of the strange death of boozy Britain. 

Tim Wigmore is a contributing writer to the New Statesman and the author of Second XI: Cricket In Its Outposts.