What will whistleblower reform mean for businesses?

A new law protects whistleblowers.

Government reforms to UK laws protecting whistleblowers came into effect last week, shielding employees for disclosures they believe to be in the public interest and closing a legislative loophole which had allowed disputes over employment contracts to be protected

Legislation has been in place since 1999 to afford protection to employees and some workers who blow the whistle on improper or illegal activities in the workplace. Protection is afforded to those who disclose information that they reasonably believe shows wrongdoing (eg the commission of a criminal offence or breach of a legal obligation), when that disclosure is made to a permitted category of person, such as the worker’s employer. Importantly, and although this was not specified in the legislation, the protection implied that the disclosure should be made in the public interest.

However, both the legal profession and employers were surprised when the courts decided to afford whistle-blower protection to employees who complained about breaches of their own employment contracts. The UK government sought to address this apparent loophole by passing legislation to refine the scope of whistle-blower protection.

The law was amended by the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013, with relevant aspects applying to disclosures made on or after the 25th.

Disclosures are now only protected in cases where a worker or employee discloses information which they reasonably believe to be in the public interest. The important distinction is that the disclosure does not need to be in the public interest, but that the whistle-blower must have a reasonable belief that it is. The whistleblower will also no longer be required to make the disclosure in good faith, although they may find it very difficult to satisfy the new "public interest" test if they are making a disclosure in bad faith. However, if a disclosure which satisfies the "public interest" test is made in bad faith, for example, if an employee is motivated by malice rather than a desire to right a wrong, then the Employment Tribunal can reduce any compensation awarded to a whistle-blower by up to 25 per cent.

The legislation does not define the "public interest", and it will fall to the courts to debate and define what constitutes the “public interest” in this context. Employees may consider (and hold a reasonable belief) that disclosing information concerning breaches of their own employment contract is in the “public interest”, intending to ensure that similar breaches do not happen to other employees. If the courts interpret the definition broadly, it may undermine the purpose of the changes.

Conversely, to take a very narrow approach to the definition could reduce the effectiveness of any whistleblower protection.

It is also automatically unfair for an employee to be dismissed where the reason or principal reason for the dismissal is that he or she has made a protected disclosure, even in cases where there are other issues, such as with the employee’s conduct or performance, and they are protected from being subjected to any detriment because they have made a protected disclosure. Furthermore, protection against unfair dismissal applies to whistle-blowers regardless of whether or not they have completed the two years’ service which is normally necessary to bring an unfair dismissal claim against an employer.

The protection given to whistle-blowers also removes the normal, statutory cap on compensation for unfair dismissal that can be awarded if their claim is successful. In addition, the government has made it clear that protection extends to retaliation or detrimental treatment of whistle-blowers at the hands of their colleagues, as well as their employer.

In an environment where businesses are facing increasing regulation, such as in financial services and since the introduction of the Bribery Act 2010, whistleblowing may become more prevalent and should be encouraged as an important means of monitoring compliance. The recent changes help to restore the focus of the legislation on issues which have implications for the public as a whole, while providing protection for whistle-blowers. It will be interesting to watch how the courts develop this area of law.

This piece first appeared on economia.

James Cox is a partner at Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher.

A new law protects whistleblowers. Photograph: Getty Images

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The Telegraph’s bizarre list of 100 reasons to be happy about Brexit

“Old-fashioned light bulbs”, “crooked cucumbers”, and “new vocabulary”.

As the economy teeters on the verge of oblivion, and the Prime Minister grapples with steering the UK around a black hole of political turmoil, the Telegraph is making the best of a bad situation.

The paper has posted a video labelled “100 reasons to embrace Brexit”. Obviously the precise number is “zero”, but that didn’t stop it filling the blanks with some rather bizarre reasons, floating before the viewer to an inevitable Jerusalem soundtrack:

Cheap tennis balls

At last. Tennis balls are no longer reserved for the gilded eurocrat elite.

Keep paper licences

I can’t trust it unless I can get it wet so it disintegrates, or I can throw it in the bin by mistake, or lose it when I’m clearing out my filing cabinet. It’s only authentic that way.

New hangover cures

What?

Stronger vacuums

An end to the miserable years of desperately trying to hoover up dust by inhaling close to the carpet.

Old-fashioned light bulbs

I like my electricals filled with mercury and coated in lead paint, ideally.

No more EU elections

Because the democratic aspect of the European Union was something we never obsessed over in the run-up to the referendum.

End working time directive

At last, I don’t even have to go to the trouble of opting out of over-working! I will automatically be exploited!

Drop green targets

Most people don’t have time to worry about the future of our planet. Some don’t even know where their next tennis ball will come from.

No more wind farms

Renewable energy sources, infrastructure and investment – what a bore.

Blue passports

I like my personal identification how I like my rinse.

UK passport lane

Oh good, an unadulterated queue of British tourists. Just mind the vomit, beer spillage and flakes of sunburnt skin while you wait.

No fridge red tape

Free the fridge!

Pounds and ounces

Units of measurement are definitely top of voters’ priorities. Way above the economy, health service, and even a smidgen higher than equality of tennis ball access.

Straight bananas

Wait, what kind of bananas do Brexiteers want? Didn’t they want to protect bendy ones? Either way, this is as persistent a myth as the slapstick banana skin trope.

Crooked cucumbers

I don’t understand.

Small kiwi fruits

Fair enough. They were getting a bit above their station, weren’t they.

No EU flags in UK

They are a disgusting colour and design. An eyesore everywhere you look…in the uh zero places that fly them here.

Kent champagne

To celebrate Ukip cleaning up the east coast, right?

No olive oil bans

Finally, we can put our reliable, Mediterranean weather and multiple olive groves to proper use.

No clinical trials red tape

What is there to regulate?

No Turkey EU worries

True, we don’t have to worry. Because there is NO WAY AND NEVER WAS.

No kettle restrictions

Free the kettle! All kitchen appliances’ lives matter!

Less EU X-factor

What is this?

Ditto with BGT

I really don’t get this.

New vocabulary

Mainly racist slurs, right?

Keep our UN seat

Until that in/out UN referendum, of course.

No EU human rights laws

Yeah, got a bit fed up with my human rights tbh.

Herbal remedy boost

At last, a chance to be treated with medicine that doesn’t work.

Others will follow [picture of dominos]

Hooray! The economic collapse of countries surrounding us upon whose trade and labour we rely, one by one!

Better English team

Ah, because we can replace them with more qualified players under an Australian-style points-based system, you mean?

High-powered hairdryers

An end to the miserable years of desperately trying to dry my hair by yawning on it.

She would’ve wanted it [picture of Margaret Thatcher]

Well, I’m convinced.

I'm a mole, innit.