Developers of Draw Something, worth $180m in 2012, now worth $0m

Can you hear the bubble pop? Can you hear it OMGPOP?

In March 2012, Zynga, the casual gaming titan, acquired OMGPOP, a small firm which had developed the breakout hit Draw Something. It paid $180m. At the time, around one billion games were being played each and every week on the app, which had gone from being iOS only to having successful Android and Facebook ports, all with a very small team behind it. At the time, there was some grumbling that Zynga's offer was backed up with the implicit threat that it would simply clone the game if it didn't get its way, but for the most part, OMGPOP seemed happy.

Then it went downhill.

In October, Zynga wrote off $95m related to "the intangible assets previously acquired in connection with the company's purchase of OMGPOP" when filing its financial results for Q3 2012. And now, the company announces (under the fantastically euphamistic headline "Zynga Announces Substantial Cost Reductions") that it is laying off 520 employees, including the entirety of its LA, Dallas and New York offices. The New York offices being the rebranded OMGPOP offices.

In other words, the value of OMGPOP has declined from $180m to roughly $0m in just over a year. Zynga still has the company's IP, of course, and released Draw Something 2 to moderate reception in April (peaking at #3 in the iPhone games charts, it would be a solid performance for anything but the sequel to the biggest iPhone game of last year), so the withered husk of OMGPOP is still worth something to the company. But the purchase is definitely one of the first proofs of the astronomically inflated valuations of the second web bubble.

It's hard to divorce the travails of OMGPOP from the wider problems of Zynga, though. Certainly the former was ludicrously overvalued, acquired at the peak of its popularity even as many were pointing out it was far more fad than evergreen. But Zynga has experienced its own difficulties. Earnings from its flagship Farmville game have plummeted, even while other games have failed to pick up the slack; daily active users have slid from 72m to 52m in a year; and before its latest quarterly results, it shuttered four more underperforming games, The Ville, Dream Zoo, Empires & Allies, and Dream Zoo (the latter made for the Chinese market). Whether or not Draw Something was an unrepeatable success before the acquisition, Zynga doesn't look to be the best company to have shepherded it anywhere at all.

Alex Hern is a technology reporter for the Guardian. He was formerly staff writer at the New Statesman. You should follow Alex on Twitter.

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Air pollution: 5 steps to vanquishing an invisible killer

A new report looks at the economics of air pollution. 

110, 150, 520... These chilling statistics are the number of deaths attributable to particulate air pollution for the cities of Southampton, Nottingham and Birmingham in 2010 respectively. Or how about 40,000 - that is the total number of UK deaths per year that are attributable the combined effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx).

This situation sucks, to say the very least. But while there are no dramatic images to stir up action, these deaths are preventable and we know their cause. Road traffic is the worst culprit. Traffic is responsible for 80 per cent of NOx on high pollution roads, with diesel engines contributing the bulk of the problem.

Now a new report by ResPublica has compiled a list of ways that city councils around the UK can help. The report argues that: “The onus is on cities to create plans that can meet the health and economic challenge within a short time-frame, and identify what they need from national government to do so.”

This is a diplomatic way of saying that current government action on the subject does not go far enough – and that cities must help prod them into gear. That includes poking holes in the government’s proposed plans for new “Clean Air Zones”.

Here are just five of the ways the report suggests letting the light in and the pollution out:

1. Clean up the draft Clean Air Zones framework

Last October, the government set out its draft plans for new Clean Air Zones in the UK’s five most polluted cities, Birmingham, Derby, Leeds, Nottingham and Southampton (excluding London - where other plans are afoot). These zones will charge “polluting” vehicles to enter and can be implemented with varying levels of intensity, with three options that include cars and one that does not.

But the report argues that there is still too much potential for polluters to play dirty with the rules. Car-charging zones must be mandatory for all cities that breach the current EU standards, the report argues (not just the suggested five). Otherwise national operators who own fleets of vehicles could simply relocate outdated buses or taxis to places where they don’t have to pay.  

Different vehicles should fall under the same rules, the report added. Otherwise, taking your car rather than the bus could suddenly seem like the cost-saving option.

2. Vouchers to vouch-safe the project’s success

The government is exploring a scrappage scheme for diesel cars, to help get the worst and oldest polluting vehicles off the road. But as the report points out, blanket scrappage could simply put a whole load of new fossil-fuel cars on the road.

Instead, ResPublica suggests using the revenue from the Clean Air Zone charges, plus hiked vehicle registration fees, to create “Pollution Reduction Vouchers”.

Low-income households with older cars, that would be liable to charging, could then use the vouchers to help secure alternative transport, buy a new and compliant car, or retrofit their existing vehicle with new technology.

3. Extend Vehicle Excise Duty

Vehicle Excise Duty is currently only tiered by how much CO2 pollution a car creates for the first year. After that it becomes a flat rate for all cars under £40,000. The report suggests changing this so that the most polluting vehicles for CO2, NOx and PM2.5 continue to pay higher rates throughout their life span.

For ClientEarth CEO James Thornton, changes to vehicle excise duty are key to moving people onto cleaner modes of transport: “We need a network of clean air zones to keep the most polluting diesel vehicles from the most polluted parts of our towns and cities and incentives such as a targeted scrappage scheme and changes to vehicle excise duty to move people onto cleaner modes of transport.”

4. Repurposed car parks

You would think city bosses would want less cars in the centre of town. But while less cars is good news for oxygen-breathers, it is bad news for city budgets reliant on parking charges. But using car parks to tap into new revenue from property development and joint ventures could help cities reverse this thinking.

5. Prioritise public awareness

Charge zones can be understandably unpopular. In 2008, a referendum in Manchester defeated the idea of congestion charging. So a big effort is needed to raise public awareness of the health crisis our roads have caused. Metro mayors should outline pollution plans in their manifestos, the report suggests. And cities can take advantage of their existing assets. For example in London there are plans to use electronics in the Underground to update travellers on the air pollution levels.

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Change is already in the air. Southampton has used money from the Local Sustainable Travel Fund to run a successful messaging campaign. And in 2011 Nottingham City Council became the first city to implement a Workplace Parking levy – a scheme which has raised £35.3m to help extend its tram system, upgrade the station and purchase electric buses.

But many more “air necessities” are needed before we can forget about pollution’s worry and its strife.  

 

India Bourke is an environment writer and editorial assistant at the New Statesman.