One in five Americans believe Obama is a Muslim

New polling data shows that misconceptions about Obama’s faith have increased since he took office.

A growing number of Americans believe that Barack Obama is a Muslim, a new survey conducted by the Pew Research Centre shows. The proportion of people accurately identifying him as a Christian has also declined since his inauguration as president.

The statistics get more worrying when you delve a little deeper: 67 per cent of those who identified Obama as Muslim disapprove of his job performance, compared to a 29 per cent disapproval rating from those who think he is Christian. As Obama's approval ratings continue to founder, it seems that perceptions of his political performance are increasingly being linked to assumptions about his religious identity. However, his policy decisions are considered to be less influenced by religion than those of his predecessor.

Nearly one in five Americans now identifies Obama as a Muslim, up from 11 per cent in March 2009. The increase in this perception is particularly marked among Republicans (up 14 per cent in the same period) and conservative Republicans (up 16 per cent).

Crucially, this poll was conducted in early August, before the president's intervention in the Ground Zero mosque controversy, which has provoked a wealth of anti-Muslim dissent from some quarters. The Pew findings are echoed in a recent Time magazine poll, in which 24 per cent of those surveyed said they believe Obama is a Muslim. Almost a third said that Muslims should be barred from running for president at all.

Internet conspiracies surround Obama's birth and religion have been around since well before the 2008 election, but the notion that Obama was a Muslim received more attention after a supporter of his Republican opponent John McCain repeatedly referred to him as "Barack Hussein Obama".

As to where this perception is coming from, Joshua DuBois, the White House adviser on faith, has blamed "misinformation campaigns" by political opponents. Yet the survey tells a slightly different story. About 60 per cent of those who identified Obama as Muslim said their source was the media, but one in ten cited "Obama's own words and behaviour".

Considering the man is very forthcoming about his faith, and that the news wires regularly run reports about him attending Baptist services, it is hard to pin this entirely on the media. Given the swell of anti-Muslim sentiment across the US as the Ground Zero controversy intensifies, the misconception isn't going to be corrected any time soon.

Caroline Crampton is assistant editor of the New Statesman.

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What Brussels can learn from the Italian referendum

Matteo Renzi's proposed reforms would have made it easier for eurosceptic forces within Italy to gain power in upcoming elections in 2018.

The Austrian presidential elections can justifiably be claimed as a victory for supporters of the European Union. But the Italian referendum is not the triumph for euroscepticism some have claimed.

In Austria, the victorious candidate Alexander van der Bellen ruthlessly put the EU centre stage in his campaign. “From the beginning I fought and argued for a pro-European Austria,” he said after a campaign that saw posters warning against “Öxit”.

Austrians have traditionally been eurosceptic, only joining the bloc in 1995, but Brexit changed all that.  Austrian voters saw the instability in the UK and support for EU membership soared. An overwhelming majority now back continued membership.

Van der Bellen’s opponent Norbert Hofer was at an immediate disadvantage. His far right Freedom Party has long pushed for an Öxit referendum.

The Freedom Party has claimed to have undergone a Damascene conversion but voters were not fooled.  They even blamed Nigel Farage for harming their chances with an interview he gave to Fox News claiming that the party would push to leave the EU.

The European Commission, as one would expect, hailed the result. “Europe was central in the campaign that led to the election of a new president and the final result speaks for itself,” chief spokesman Margaritis Schinas said today in Brussels.

“We think the referendum in Italy was about a change to the Italian constitution and not about Europe,” Schinas added.

Brussels has a history of sticking its head in the sand when it gets political results it doesn’t like.

When asked what lessons the Commission could learn from Brexit, Schinas had said the lessons to be learnt were for the government that called the referendum.

But in this case, the commission is right. The EU was a peripheral issue compared to domestic politics in the Italian referendum.

Alberto Alemanno is Jean Monnet Professor of EU Law and an Italian. He said the reforms would have been vital to modernise Italy but rejected any idea it would lead to an Italian Brexit.

“While anti-establishment and eurosceptic actors are likely to emerge emboldened from the vote, interpreting the outcome of the Italian referendum as the next stage of Europe’s populist, anti-establishment movement – as many mainstream journalists have done – is not only factually wrong, but also far-fetched.”

Renzi was very popular in Brussels after coming to power in a palace coup in February 2014. He was a pro-EU reformer, who seemed keen to engage in European politics.

After the Brexit vote, he was photographed with Merkel and Hollande on the Italian island of Ventotene, where a landmark manifesto by the EU’s founding fathers was written.

This staged communion with the past was swiftly forgotten as Renzi indulged in increasingly virulent Brussels-bashing over EU budget flexibility in a bid to shore up his plummeting popularity. 

Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker even publicly reprimanded Renzi for demonising the EU.

Renzi’s vow to resign personalised the referendum. He gave voters a chance to give him a bloody nose when his popularity was at an all-time low.

Some of the reforms he wanted were marked “to be confirmed”.  The referendum question was astonishingly verbose and complex. He was asking for a blank cheque from the voters.

Ironically Renzi’s reforms to the constitution and senate would have made it easier for the eurosceptic Five Star Movement to gain power in upcoming elections in 2018.

For reasons best known to themselves, they campaigned against the changes to their own disadvantage.

Thanks to the reforms, a Five Star government would have found it far easier to push through a “Quitaly” referendum, which now seems very distant.  

As things stand, Five Star has said it would push for an advisory vote on membership of the euro but not necessarily the EU.

The Italian constitution bans the overruling of international treaties by popular vote, so Five Star would need to amend the constitution. That would require a two thirds majority in both houses of parliament and then another referendum on euro membership. Even that could be blocked by one of the country’s supreme courts.

The Italian referendum was closely watched in Brussels. It was hailed as another triumph for euroscepticism by the likes of Farage and Marine Le Pen. But Italians are far more likely to be concerned about the possibility of financial turbulence, which has so far been mildly volatile, than any prospect of leaving the EU in the near future.

James Crisp is the news editor at EurActiv.com.