CommentPlus: pick of the papers

The ten must-read pieces from the Sunday papers.

1. Don't destroy our universities. Our future depends on them (Observer)

With knowledge-intensive work growing ever more important, Will Hutton argues that the government must rethink its stance on university cuts. The inevitable further budget reductions will cause deep damage.

2. The new university challenge is to unravel Labour's mess (Sunday Times)

Minette Marrin looks at Labour's legacy to education -- a disastrous combination of inflation and devaluation. The Blair-Brown years have demonstrated that it is quite easy to bring down standards.

3. For Cable as chancellor, vote Labour (Independent on Sunday)

John Rentoul explores the possibilities of a hung parliament. With such a clunky mechanism, the Lib Dems need Brown to do well if they are to enter a power-sharing deal.

4. Budget 2010: David Cameron prepares for 48-hour trench warfare (Sunday Telegraph)

Labour's last-ditch Budget will herald an artillery battle over Britain's future, says Matthew d'Ancona. Cameron and George Osborne must be honest and detailed in their responses.

5. Do the right thing before you go, Alistair Darling (Sunday Times)

Dominic Lawson agrees that the Chancellor is preparing Wednesday's Budget statement with an eye to posterity. He is a mild-mannered man; if he were more abrasive, he might harangue the public-sector unions picketing the Treasury.

6. Why all these emails from Barack Obama make me feel cheap (Observer)

Andrew Rawnsley says that the internet is undermining old-fashioned campaign models and killing conventional forms of propaganda.

7. Cut off the cash and Israel might behave (Independent on Sunday)

Binyamin Netanyahu is undermining US interests, says Avi Shlaim. The sooner Barack Obama makes his support conditional, the better.

8. Care for the eldely: One question that all our politicians are agreed on (Sunday Telegraph)

Alasdair Palmer wonders how we will fund care for the elderly over the next 20 years -- neither Labour nor the Conservatives has suggested a viable way to fill the funding shortfall.

9. Saying sorry is not enough. The Church has got to change (Observer)

The paper's editorial says Pope Benedict XVI's letter to the Catholics of Ireland was inadequate, and adds to the woes of those his Church has wronged.

10. Health-care reform enters its endgame (Independent on Sunday)

Failure on health-care reform will not break Obama's presidency, says the leading article, but it could alter the political calculus.

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After Article 50 is triggered, what happens next?

The UK must prepare for years, if not decades, of negotiating. 

Back in June, when Europe woke to the news of Brexit, the response was muted. “When I first emerged from my haze to go to the European Parliament there was a big sign saying ‘We will miss you’, which was sweet,” Labour MEP Seb Dance remembered at a European Commission event. “The German car industry said we don’t want any disruption of trade.”

But according to Dance – best known for holding up a “He’s Lying” sign behind Nigel Farage’s head – the mood has hardened with the passing months.

The UK is seen as demanding. The Prime Minister’s repeated refusal to guarantee EU citizens’ rights is viewed as toxic. The German car manufacturers now say the EU is more important than British trade. “I am afraid that bonhomie has evaporated,” Dance said. 

On 31 March the UK will trigger Article 50. Doing so will end our period of national soul-searching and begin the formal process of divorce. So what next?

The European Parliament will have its say

In the EU, just as in the UK, the European Parliament will not be the lead negotiator. But it is nevertheless very powerful, because MEPs can vote on the final Brexit deal, and wield, in effect, a veto.

The Parliament’s chief negotiator is Guy Verhofstadt, a committed European who has previously given Remoaners hope with a plan to offer them EU passports. Expect them to tune in en masse to watch when this idea is revived in April (it’s unlikely to succeed, but MEPs want to discuss the principle). 

After Article 50 is triggered, Dance expects MEPs to draw up a resolution setting out its red lines in the Brexit negotiations, and present this to the European Commission.

The European Commission will spearhead negotiations

Although the Parliament may provide the most drama, it is the European Commission, which manages the day-to-day business of the EU, which will lead negotiations. The EU’s chief negotiator is Michel Barnier. 

Barnier is a member of the pan-EU European People’s Party, like Jean-Claude Juncker and German Chancellor Angela Merkel. He has said of the negotiations: “We are ready. Keep calm and negotiate.”

This will be a “deal” of two halves

The Brexit divorce is expected to take 16 to 18 months from March (although this is simply guesswork), which could mean Britain officially Brexits at the start of 2019.

But here’s the thing. The divorce is likely to focus on settling up bills and – hopefully – agreeing a transitional arrangement. This is because the real deal that will shape Britain’s future outside the EU is the trade deal. And there’s no deadline on that. 

As Dance put it: “The duration of that trade agreement will exceed the life of the current Parliament, and might exceed the life of the next as well.”

The trade agreement may look a bit like Ceta

The European Parliament has just approved the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (Ceta) with Canada, a mammoth trade deal which has taken eight years to negotiate. 

One of the main stumbling points in trade deals is agreeing on similar regulatory standards. The UK currently shares regulations with the rest of the UK, so this should speed up the process.

But another obstacle is that national or regional parliaments can vote against a trade deal. In October, the rebellious Belgian region of Wallonia nearly destroyed Ceta. An EU-UK deal would be far more politically sensitive. 

The only way is forward

Lawyers working for the campaign group The People’s Challenge have argued that it will legally be possible for the UK Parliament to revoke Article 50 if the choice is between a terrible deal and no deal at all. 

But other constitutional experts think this is highly unlikely to work – unless a penitent Britain can persuade the rest of the EU to agree to turn back the clock. 

Davor Jancic, who lectures on EU law at Queen Mary University of London, believes Article 50 is irrevocable. 

Jeff King, a professor of law at University College London, is also doubtful, but has this kernel of hope for all the Remainers out there:

“No EU law scholar has suggested that with the agreement of the other 27 member states you cannot allow a member state to withdraw its notice.”

Good luck chanting that at a march. 

Julia Rampen is the editor of The Staggers, The New Statesman's online rolling politics blog. She was previously deputy editor at Mirror Money Online and has worked as a financial journalist for several trade magazines.